Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a nuclear medicine tomographic imaging technique using gamma rays. It is able to provide a 3D image of patient's functional information. The basic technique requires injection of a gamma-emitting radioisotope (also called radionuclide) into the bloodstream of the patient. Most of the time in SPECT, a marker radioisotope, which is of interest only for its radioactive properties, has been attached to a special radioligand, which is of interest for its chemical binding properties to certain types of tissues. This marriage allows the combination of ligand and radioisotope (theradiopharmaceutical) to be carried and bound to a place of interest in the body, which then (due to the gamma-emission of the isotope) allows the ligand concentration to be seen by a gamma-camera.
SPECT images are different from the X-ray CT images. The X-ray CT uses external X-rays to image patient's anatomical structure, while SPECT uses injected internal gamma rays to image patient's chemical properties, in the form of 3D distribution of a radionuclide picture.
SPECT is similar to PET (Positron Emission Tomography) in its use of radioactive tracer material and detection of gamma rays. In contrast with PET, however, the tracer used in SPECT emits gamma radiation that is measured directly, whereas PET tracer emits positrons which annihilate with electrons up to a few millimeters away, causing two gamma photons to be emitted in opposite directions. A PET scanner detects these emissions "coincident" in time, which provides more radiation event localization information and thus higher resolution images than SPECT (which has about 1 cm resolution). SPECT scans, however, are significantly less expensive than PET scans, in part because they are able to use longer-lived more easily-obtained radioisotopes than PET.
During SPECT data acquisition, a gamma camera is used to acquire multiple 2D images (also called projections), from multiple angles. A computer is then used to apply a reconstruction algorithm to the multiple projections, yielding a 3D dataset. This dataset may then be manipulated to show thin slices along any chosen axis of the body, similar to those obtained from other tomographic techniques, such as MRI, CT, and PET.
To acquire SPECT images, the gamma camera is rotated around the patient. Projections are acquired at defined points during the rotation, typically every 3-6 degrees. In most cases, a full 360 degree rotation is used to obtain an optimal reconstruction. The time taken to obtain each projection is also variable, but 15-20 seconds is typical. This gives a total scan time of 15-20 minutes.
Multi-headed gamma cameras can provide accelerated acquisition. For example, a dual headed camera can be used with heads spaced 180 degrees apart, allowing 2 projections to be acquired simultaneously, with each head requiring 180 degrees of rotation. Triple-head cameras with 120 degree spacing are also used.
Cardiac gated acquisitions are possible with SPECT, just as with planar imaging techniques such as MUGA. Triggered by Electrocardiogram (EKG) to obtain differential information about the heart in various parts of its cycle, gated myocardial SPECT can be used to obtain quantitative information about myocardial perfusion, thickness, and contractility of the myocardium during various parts of the cardiac cycle; and also to allow calculation of left ventricular ejection fraction, stroke volume, and cardiac output.
Because SPECT permits accurate localization in 3D space, it can be used to provide information about localized function in internal organs, such as functional cardiac or brain imaging.