Joshua Bailey, MPAS


  • English

Academic Information

  • Departments: Family & Preventive Medicine - Adjunct Instructor
  • Divisions: Physician Assistant Program

Academic Office Information

  • 801-581-8114
  • HPER North
    Health Promotion & Education
    250 S 1850 E, Room: 215
    Salt Lake City, UT 84112

Selected Publications

Journal Article

  1. Krishnan K, Ruffin MT, Normolle D, Shureiqi I, Burney K, Bailey J, Peters-Golden M, Rock CL, Boland CR, Brenner DE (2001 May). Colonic mucosal prostaglandin E2 and cyclooxygenase expression before and after low aspirin doses in subjects at high risk or at normal risk for colorectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 10(5), 447-53.
  2. Franzen S, Bailey J, Dyer RB, Woodruff WH, Hu RB, Thomas MR, Boxer SG (2001 May 1). A photolysis-triggered heme ligand switch in H93G myoglobin. Biochemistry, 40(17), 5299-305.
  3. Bailey J, Rose P (2001 May). Axillary and tympanic membrane temperature recording in the preterm neonate: a comparative study. J Adv Nurs, 34(4), 465-74.
  4. Porcelli TA, Adamczak A, Bailey JM, Beer GA, Douglas JL, Faifman MP, Fujiwara MC, Huber TM, Kammel P, Kim SK, Knowles PE, Kunselman AR, Maier M, Markushin VE, Marshall GM, Mason GR, Mulhauser F, Olin A, Petitjean C, Zmeskal J (2001 Apr 23). Measurement of the resonant d(mu)t molecular formation rate in solid HD. Phys Rev Lett, 86(17), 3763-6.
  5. Fux C, Moser S, Schlatter S, Rimann M, Bailey JE, Fussenegger M (2001 Feb 15). Streptogramin- and tetracycline-responsive dual regulated expression of p27(Kip1) sense and antisense enables positive and negative growth control of Chinese hamster ovary cells. Nucleic Acids Res, 29(4), E19.
  6. Cheung VG, Nowak N, Jang W, Kirsch IR, Zhao S, Chen XN, Furey TS, Kim UJ, Kuo WL, Olivier M, Conroy J, Kasprzyk A, Massa H, Yonescu R, Sait S, Thoreen C, Snijders A, Lemyre E, Bailey JA, Bruzel A, Burrill WD, Clegg SM, Collins S, Dhami P, Friedman C, Han CS, Herrick S, Lee J, Ligon AH, Lowry S, Morley M, Narasimhan S, Osoegawa K, Peng Z, Plajzer-Frick I, Quade BJ, Scott D, Sirotkin K, Thorpe AA, Gray JW, Hudson J, Pinkel D, Ried T, Rowen L, Shen-Ong GL, Strausberg RL, Birney E, Callen DF, Cheng JF, Cox DR, Doggett NA, Carter NP, Eichler EE, Haussler D, Korenberg JR, Morton CC, Albertson D, Schuler G, de Jong PJ, Trask BJ (2001 Feb 15). Integration of cytogenetic landmarks into the draft sequence of the human genome. Nature, 409(6822), 953-8.
  7. Bailey J, Bude RO, Tuthill T (2001 Feb). US artifacts: effects on out-of-plane us images reconstructed from three-dimensional data sets. Radiology, 218(2), 592-7.
  8. Bailey J (2001 Feb-Apr). Astronomical sources of circularly polarized light and the origin of homochirality. Orig Life Evol Biosph, 31(1-2), 167-83.
  9. Chappel D, Bailey J, Stacy R, Rodgers H, Thomson R (2001 Jan). Implementation and evaluation of local-level priority setting for stroke. Public Health, 115(1), 21-9.
  10. Coppen A, Bailey J (2000 Nov). Enhancement of the antidepressant action of fluoxetine by folic acid: a randomised, placebo controlled trial. J Affect Disord, 60(2), 121-30.
  11. Mansell JP, Kerrigan J, McGill J, Bailey J, TeKoppele J, Sandy JR (2000 Oct 20). Temporal changes in collagen composition and metabolism during rodent palatogenesis. Mech Ageing Dev, 119(1-2), 49-62.
  12. Ragg S, Xu-Welliver M, Bailey J, DSouza M, Cooper R, Chandra S, Seshadri R, Pegg AE, Williams DA (2000 Sep 15). Direct reversal of DNA damage by mutant methyltransferase protein protects mice against dose-intensified chemotherapy and leads to in vivo selection of hematopoietic stem cells. Cancer Res, 60(18), 5187-95.
  13. Moser S, Schlatter S, Fux C, Rimann M, Bailey JE, Fussenegger M (2000 Sep-Oct). An update of pTRIDENT multicistronic expression vectors: pTRIDENTs containing novel streptogramin-responsive promoters. Biotechnol Prog, 16(5), 724-35.
  14. Fujiwara MC, Adamczak A, Bailey JM, Beer GA, Beveridge JL, Faifman MP, Huber TM, Kammel P, Kim SK, Knowles PE, Kunselman AR, Maier M, Markushin VE, Marshall GM, Martoff CJ, Mason GR, Mulhauser F, Olin A, Petitjean C, Porcelli TA, Wozniak J, Zmeskal J (2000 Aug 21). Resonant formation of dµt molecules in deuterium: An atomic beam measurement of muon catalyzed dt fusion. Phys Rev Lett, 85(8), 1642-5.
  15. Bailey J, Sparey C, Phillips RJ, Gilmore K, Robson SC, Dunlop W, Europe-Finner GN (2000 Jul). Expression of the cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factors, CREB, CREM and ATF2, in the human myometrium during pregnancy and labour. Mol Hum Reprod, 6(7), 648-60.
  16. Leake FS, Thompson JW, Simms E, Bailey J, Stocks RM, Murphy AM (2000 May 30). Acquisition of hearing aids and assistive listening devices among the pediatric hearing-impaired population. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol, 52(3), 247-51.
  17. Baptiste KE, Naylor JM, Bailey J, Barber EM, Post K, Thornhill J (2000 Jan 27). A function for guttural pouches in the horse. Nature, 403(6768), 382-3.
  18. Dunham I, Shimizu N, Roe BA, Chissoe S, Hunt AR, Collins JE, Bruskiewich R, Beare DM, Clamp M, Smink LJ, Ainscough R, Almeida JP, Babbage A, Bagguley C, Bailey J, Barlow K, Bates KN, Beasley O, Bird CP, Blakey S, Bridgeman AM, Buck D, Burgess J, Burrill WD, OBrien KP, et al (1999 Dec 2). The DNA sequence of human chromosome 22. Nature, 402(6761), 489-95.
  19. Bailey J, Cook LJ, Kilmer-Barber R, Swanston E, Solnica-Krezel L, Lohman K, Dove WF, Dee J, Anderson RW (1999 Dec). Identification of three genes expressed primarily during development in Physarum polycephalum. Arch Microbiol, 172(6), 364-76.
  20. Lee MH, Kosuk N, Bailey J, Traxler B, Manoil C (1999 Oct). Analysis of F factor TraD membrane topology by use of gene fusions and trypsin-sensitive insertions. J Bacteriol, 181(19), 6108-13.
  21. Morrison-Saunders A, Bailey J (1999 Oct). FORUM: Exploring the EIA/Environmental Management Relationship. Environ Manage, 24(3), 281-295.
  22. Tjampens D, Bailey J, Cook LJ, Constantin B, Vandekerckhove J, Gettemans J (1999 Oct 1). Physarum amoebae express a distinct fragmin-like actin-binding protein that controls in vitro phosphorylation of actin by the actin-fragmin kinase. Eur J Biochem, 265(1), 240-50.
  23. Palmer CG, Bailey JN, Ramsey C, Cantwell D, Sinsheimer JS, DelHomme M, McGough J, Woodward JA, Asarnow R, Asarnow J, Nelson S, Smalley SL (1999 Sep). No evidence of linkage or linkage disequilibrium between DAT1 and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in a large sample. Psychiatr Genet, 9(3), 157-60.
  24. Jerome CP, Johnson CS, Vafai HT, Kaplan KC, Bailey J, Capwell B, Fraser F, Hansen L, Ramsay H, Shadoan M, Lees CJ, Thomsen JS, Mosekilde L (1999 Sep). Effect of treatment for 6 months with human parathyroid hormone (1-34) peptide in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Bone, 25(3), 301-9.
  25. Bailey J, Colahan P, Kubilis P, Pablo L (1999 Jul). Effect of inhaled beta 2 adrenoceptor agonist, albuterol sulphate, on performance of horses. Equine Vet J Suppl, 30, 575-80.
  26. Sears LL, Vest C, Mohamed S, Bailey J, Ranson BJ, Piven J (1999 May). An MRI study of the basal ganglia in autism. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry, 23(4), 613-24.
  27. Sparey C, Robson SC, Bailey J, Lyall F, Europe-Finner GN (1999 May). The differential expression of myometrial connexin-43, cyclooxygenase-1 and -2, and Gs alpha proteins in the upper and lower segments of the human uterus during pregnancy and labor. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 84(5), 1705-10.
  28. Cardozo L, Hextall A, Bailey J, Boos K (1999 Apr). Colposuspension after previous failed incontinence surgery: a prospective observational study. Br J Obstet Gynaecol, 106(4), 340-4.
  29. Bailey J, Van Herle AJ, Giuliano A, Schroder S (1999 Mar). Unilateral adrenal medullary hyperplasia: another form of curable hypertension? Int J Clin Pract, 53(2), 149-51.
  30. Bailey J, Roland M, Roberts C (1999 Feb). Is follow up by specialists routinely needed after elective surgery? A controlled trial. J Epidemiol Community Health, 53(2), 118-24.
  31. Smith A, Sturgess W, Rich N, Brice C, Collison C, Bailey J, Wilson S, Nutt DJ (1999). The effects of idazoxan on reaction times, eye movements and the mood of healthy volunteers and patients with upper respiratory tract illnesses. J Psychopharmacol, 13(2), 148-51.
  32. Bailey J (1998 Nov). The tao of professional appraisal: how to remain content and calm during the appraisal interview. J Nurs Manag, 6(6), 379-83.
  33. Stewart C, Bailey J, Manoil C (1998 Oct 23). Mutant membrane protein toxicity. J Biol Chem, 273(43), 28078-84.
  34. Antrobus S, Bailey J (1998 Oct 21-27). The success of primary care groups. Nurs Times, 94(42), 45.
  35. Scott RJ, Spielman M, Bailey J, Dickinson HG (1998 Sep). Parent-of-origin effects on seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Development, 125(17), 3329-41.
  36. Smalley SL, Bailey JN, Palmer CG, Cantwell DP, McGough JJ, DelHomme MA, Asarnow JR, Woodward JA, Ramsey C, Nelson SF (1998 Sep). Evidence that the dopamine D4 receptor is a susceptibility gene in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Mol Psychiatry, 3(5), 427-30.
  37. Bailey J, Chrysostomou A, Hough JH, Gledhill TM, McCall A, Clark S, Menard F, Tamura M (1998 Jul 31). Circular polarization in star- formation regions: implications for biomolecular homochirality. Science, 281(5377), 672-4.
  38. Bailey J, Chrysostomou A, Hough JH, Gledhill TM, McCall A, Clark S, Menard F, Tamura M (1998 Jul 31). Circular polarization in star-formation regions: implications for biomolecular homochirality. Science, 281(5377), 672-4.
  39. Piven J, Bailey J, Ranson BJ, Arndt S (1998 Apr). No difference in hippocampus volume detected on magnetic resonance imaging in autistic individuals. J Autism Dev Disord, 28(2), 105-10.
  40. Bailey J, Manoil C (1998 Mar 27). Missense mutations that inactivate Escherichia coli lac permease. J Mol Biol, 277(2), 199-213.
  41. Reiber DC, Brown RS, Weinberger S, Kenny J, Bailey J (1998 Mar 15). Unknown peptide sequencing using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization and in-source decay. Anal Chem, 70(6), 1214-22.
  42. Weinstein A, Feldtkeller B, Malizia A, Wilson S, Bailey J, Nutt DJ (1998). Integrating the cognitive and physiological aspects of craving. J Psychopharmacol, 12(1), 31-8.
  43. Fussenegger M, Moser S, Mazur X, Bailey JE (1997 Nov-Dec). Autoregulated multicistronic expression vectors provide one-step cloning of regulated product gene expression in mammalian cells. Biotechnol Prog, 13(6), 733-40.
  44. Weinstein A, Wilson S, Bailey J, Myles J, Nutt D (1997 Oct 25). Imagery of craving in opiate addicts undergoing detoxification. Drug Alcohol Depend, 48(1), 25-31.
  45. Sun ZS, Albrecht U, Zhuchenko O, Bailey J, Eichele G, Lee CC (1997 Sep 19). RIGUI, a putative mammalian ortholog of the Drosophila period gene. Cell, 90(6), 1003-11.
  46. Potokar J, Coupland N, Glue P, Groves S, Malizia A, Bailey J, Wilson S, Nutt D (1997 Sep-Oct). Flumazenil in alcohol withdrawal: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Alcohol Alcohol, 32(5), 605-11.
  47. Piven J, Bailey J, Ranson BJ, Arndt S (1997 Aug). An MRI study of the corpus callosum in autism. Am J Psychiatry, 154(8), 1051-6.
  48. Piven J, Saliba K, Bailey J, Arndt S (1997 Aug). An MRI study of autism: the cerebellum revisited. Neurology, 49(2), 546-51.
  49. Bailey J (1997 May). Environmental Impact Assessment and Management: An UnderexploredRelationship. Environ Manage, 21(3), 317-27.
  50. TJampens D, Meerschaert K, Constantin B, Bailey J, Cook LJ, De Corte V, De Mol H, Goethals M, Van Damme J, Vandekerckhove J, Gettemans J (1997 May). Molecular cloning, over-expression, developmental regulation and immunolocalization of fragminP, a gelsolin-related actin-binding protein from Physarum polycephalum plasmodia. J Cell Sci, 110 ( Pt 10), 1215-26.
  51. Manoil C, Bailey J (1997 Mar 28). A simple screen for permissive sites in proteins: analysis of Escherichia coli lac permease. J Mol Biol, 267(2), 250-63.
  52. Bailey JN, Palmer CG, Woodward JA, Smalley SL (1997). A multivariate approach to affected-sib-pair analysis using highly dense molecular maps. Genet Epidemiol, 14(6), 761-6.
  53. Rodnick K, Bailey J, West J, Driedzic A (1997). Acute regulation of glucose uptake in cardiac muscle of the American eel Anguilla rostrata. J Exp Biol, 200(Pt 22), 2871-80.
  54. Zhuchenko O, Bailey J, Bonnen P, Ashizawa T, Stockton DW, Amos C, Dobyns WB, Subramony SH, Zoghbi HY, Lee CC (1997 Jan). Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia (SCA6) associated with small polyglutamine expansions in the alpha 1A-voltage-dependent calcium channel. Nat Genet, 15(1), 62-9.
  55. Bailey J (1996 Dec 18). Quality costs. Nurs Stand, 11(13-15), 16.
  56. Zhuchenko O, Wehnert M, Bailey J, Sun ZS, Lee CC (1996 Nov 1). Isolation, mapping, and genomic structure of an X-linked gene for a subunit of human mitochondrial complex I. Genomics, 37(3), 281-8.
  57. Bailey J, Cassidy A (1996 Sep 11). Using nursing theory to introduce change in practice. Nurs Stand, 10(51), 40-3.
  58. Zhao Z, Yazdani A, Shen Y, Sun Z, Bailey J, Caskey CT, Lee CC (1996 Sep). Molecular dissection of a cosmid from a gene-rich region in 17q21 and characterization of a candidate gene for alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase with two cDNA isoforms. Mamm Genome, 7(9), 686-90.
  59. Zhao Z, Lee CC, Monckton DG, Yazdani A, Coolbaugh MI, Li X, Bailey J, Shen Y, Caskey CT (1996 Jul 1). Characterization and genomic mapping of genes and pseudogenes of a new human protein tyrosine phosphatase. Genomics, 35(1), 172-81.
  60. Bailey J, Baillie L (1996 May 22). Transactional analysis: how to improve communication skills. Nurs Stand, 10(35), 39-42.
  61. Mulhauser F, Beveridge JL, Marshall GM, Bailey JM, Beer GA, Knowles PE, Mason GR, Olin A, Fujiwara MC, Huber TM, Jacot-Guillarmod R, Kammel P, Zmeskal J, Kim SK, Kunselman AR, Markushin VE, Martoff CJ, Petitjean C (1996 May). Measurement of muon transfer from proton to triton and pp micro molecular formation in solid hydrogen. Phys Rev, 53(5), 3069-3080.
  62. Piven J, Arndt S, Bailey J, Andreasen N (1996 Apr). Regional brain enlargement in autism: a magnetic resonance imaging study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 35(4), 530-6.
  63. Bailey J (1996 Apr). Children first: the local audit. Paediatr Nurs, 8(3), 6-7.
  64. Rovet J, Netley C, Keenan M, Bailey J, Stewart D (1996 Mar). The psychoeducational profile of boys with Klinefelter syndrome. J Learn Disabil, 29(2), 180-96.
  65. Sarr MG, Siadati MR, Bailey J, Lucas DL, Roddy DR, Duenes JA (1996 Mar). Neural isolation of the jejunoileum. Effect on tissue morphometry, mucosal disaccharidase activity, and tissue peptide content. J Surg Res, 61(2), 416-24.
  66. Borgmann IE, Bailey J, Clark EG (1996 Jan). Spirochete-associated bovine digital dermatitis. Can Vet J, 37(1), 35-7.
  67. Rovet J, Netley C, Bailey J, Keenan M, Stewart D (1995 Oct 9). Intelligence and achievement in children with extra X aneuploidy: a longitudinal perspective. Am J Med Genet, 60(5), 356-63.
  68. Dujardin B, Boutsen M, De Schampheleire I, Kulker R, Manshande JP, Bailey J, Wollast E, Buekens P (1995 Sep). Oxytocics in developing countries. Int J Gynaecol Obstet, 50(3), 243-51.
  69. Piven J, Arndt S, Bailey J, Havercamp S, Andreasen NC, Palmer P (1995 Aug). An MRI study of brain size in autism. Am J Psychiatry, 152(8), 1145-9.
  70. Bailey J, Pluda JM, Foli A, Saville MW, Bauza S, Adamson PC, Murphy RF, Cohen RB, Broder S, Yarchoan R (1995 Aug). Phase I/II study of intermittent all-trans-retinoic acid, alone and in combination with interferon alfa-2a, in patients with epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma. J Clin Oncol, 13(8), 1966-74.
  71. Lee CC, Yazdani A, Wehnert M, Zhao ZY, Lindsay EA, Bailey J, Coolbaugh MI, Couch L, Xiong M, Chinault AC, et al (1995 Aug). Isolation of chromosome-specific genes by reciprocal probing of arrayed cDNA and cosmid libraries. Hum Mol Genet, 4(8), 1373-80.
  72. el-Dalil A, Radcliffe KW, Bailey J, Richmond RA, Wade AA (1995 Aug). A survey on hepatitis B vaccination policies in genitourinary medicine in UK and Ireland. Genitourin Med, 71(4), 251-3.
  73. Bailey J (1995 Aug 9-15). Reflective practice: implementing theory. Nurs Stand, 9(46), 29-31.
  74. Adamson PC, Bailey J, Pluda J, Poplack DG, Bauza S, Murphy RF, Yarchoan R, Balis FM (1995 May). Pharmacokinetics of all-trans-retinoic acid administered on an intermittent schedule. J Clin Oncol, 13(5), 1238-41.
  75. Seligman L, Bailey J, Manoil C (1995 May). Sequences determining the cytoplasmic localization of a chemoreceptor domain. J Bacteriol, 177(9), 2315-20.
  76. Solnica-Krezel L, Bailey J, Gruer DP, Price JM, Dove WF, Dee J, Anderson RW (1995 Apr). Characterization of npf mutants identifying developmental genes in Physarum. Microbiology, 141 ( Pt 4), 799-816.
  77. Yang Y, Bailey J, Vacchio MS, Yarchoan R, Ashwell JD (1995 Mar 28). Retinoic acid inhibition of ex vivo human immunodeficiency virus-associated apoptosis of peripheral blood cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 92(7), 3051-5.
  78. Bailey J (1995 Mar 25). Time for change in traditional working practices? BMJ, 310(6982), 788-90.
  79. Barthwell AG, Bokos P, Bailey J, Nisenbaum M, Devereux J, Senay EC (1995 Jan-Mar). Interventions/Wilmer: a continuum of care for substance abusers in the criminal justice system. J Psychoactive Drugs, 27(1), 39-47.
  80. Burland TG, Bailey J (1995). Electroporation of Physarum polycephalum. Methods Mol Biol, 47, 303-20.
  81. Bailey J (1995 Jan 4-10). Right to nurse. Your portfolio. Nurs Stand, 9(15), 44.
  82. Bailey J, Benard M, Burland TG (1994 Aug). A luciferase expression system for Physarum that facilitates analysis of regulatory elements. CurrGenet, 26(2), 126-31.
  83. Bailey J, Black M, Wilkin D (1994 Jul 28). Outreach clinics. The special branch. Health Serv J, 104(5413), 30-1.
  84. Bailey J, King N, Newton P (1994 Mar). Analysing general practitioners' referral decisions. II. Applying the analytical framework: do high and low referrers differ in factors influencing their referral decisions? Fam Pract, 11(1), 9-14.
  85. Choi EJ, Bailey J, May RC, Masud T, Maroni BJ (1994 Mar). Metabolic responses to nephrosis: effect of a low-protein diet. Am J Physiol, 266(3 Pt 2), F432-8.
  86. King N, Bailey J, Newton P (1994 Mar). Analysing general practitioners' referral decisions. I. Developing an analytical framework. Fam Pract, 11(1), 3-8.
  87. Sehgal I, Bailey J, Hitzemann K, Pittelkow MR, Maihle NJ (1994 Mar). Epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent stimulation of amphiregulin expression in androgen-stimulated human prostate cancer cells. Mol Biol Cell, 5(3), 339-47.
  88. Burland TG, Bailey J, Pallotta D, Dove WF (1993 Oct 15). Stable, selectable, integrative DNA transformation in Physarum. Gene, 132(2), 207-12.


  1. Bailey J, Shapiro MJ (2000). Abdominal compartment syndrome. [Review]. Crit Care, 4(1), 23-9.
  2. Pastan S, Bailey J (1998 May 14). Dialysis therapy. [Review]. N Engl J Med, 338(20), 1428-37.
  3. Bailey J (1995 Oct). Plasmodium development in the myxomycete Physarum polycephalum: genetic control and cellular events. [Review]. Microbiology, 141 ( Pt 10), 2355-65.
  4. McCulloch M, Jones C, Bailey J (1995 Oct). Post traumatic stress disorder: turning the tide without opening the floodgates. [Review]. Med Sci Law, 35(4), 287-93.


  1. Laks M, Arzbaecher R, Bailey J, Berson A, Briller S, Geselowitz D (1994 Feb). Will relaxing safe current limits for electromedical equipment increase hazards to patients? Circulation, 89(2), 909-10.


  1. Bidmead J, Toozs-Hobson P, Cardozo L, Robinson D, Bailey J (2001 Jan). Randomised comparison of Burch colposuspension versus anterior colporrhaphy for patients with stress urinary incontinence [Letter to the editor]. BJOG, 108(1), 128-9.
  2. Robinson D, Anders K, Bidmead J, Cardozo L, Bailey J (2000 Sep). Ambulatory dynamics: do they help clinical management? [Letter to the editor]. BJOG, 107(9), 1183-4.
  3. Bailey J, Mikhail M, Haddy S, Thangathurai D (1998 Apr). Problems with CPAP during one-lung ventilation in thoracoscopic surgery [Letter to the editor]. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth, 12(2), 239.
  4. Coupland N, Malizia A, Bailey J, Nutt D (1996 Mar 15). Thyrotropin-releasing hormone: a potential comparator for the panicogenic effects of pentagastrin and CCK? [Letter to the editor]. Biol Psychiatry, 39(6), 465-6.
  5. Dujardin B, De Schampheleire I, Kulker R, Bailey J (1995 Jan). The partograph: is it worth including the latent phase? [Letter to the editor]. Trop Doct, 25(1), 43-4.