Carol S. Lim, PhD

Interim Chair, Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Chemistry

Research Interests

  • Gene Therapy
  • Peptides
  • Cancer Therapeutic Development
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • DNA/Gene Targeted Therapeutics
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Cellular Kinetics
  • Nuclear Import and Export


  • English

Academic Information

  • Departments: Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Chemistry - Professor, Pharmacology and Toxicology - Adjunct Professor
  • Cancer Center Programs: Cell Response & Regulation

Academic Office Information

  • 801-587-9711
  • L.S. Skaggs Pharmacy Institute
    Pharmaceutical Chemistry
    30 S 2000 E, Room: 2916
    Salt Lake City, UT 84112

Academic Bio

Carol Lim, PhD, is an associate professor in the Departments of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Chemistry at the University of Utah and a member of the Cell Response and Regulation Program at Huntsman Cancer Institute.Lim studies subcellular mislocalization of proteins, which is a cellular process that can result in cancer. She hopes to understand why mislocalizations occur and establish therapeutic methods to address the consequences. She also has a general interest in breast cancer and leukemia.Lim received a bachelor's degree from Purdue University, Indiana, and a PhD from the University of California, San Francisco.

Education History

Type School Degree
Postdoctoral Fellowship NIH/National Cancer Institute, Laboratory of Receptor Biology and Gene Expression
Postdoctoral Fellow
Doctoral Training University of California, San Francisco
Pharmaceutics (Biopharmaceutical Sciences)
Undergraduate Purdue University

Selected Publications

Journal Article

  1. Woessner DW, Eiring AM, Bruno BJ, Zabriskie MS, Reynolds KR, Miller GD, OHare T, Deininger MW, Lim CS (2015). A coiled-coil mimetic intercepts BCR-ABL1 dimerization in native and kinase-mutant chronic myeloid leukemia. Leukemia, 29(8), 1668-75.
  2. Bruno BJ, Lim CS (2015). Inhibition of bcr-abl in human leukemic cells with a coiled-coil protein delivered by a leukemia-specific cell-penetrating Peptide. Mol Pharm, 12(5), 1412-21.
  3. Matissek KJ, Okal A, Mossalam M, Lim CS (2014). Delivery of a monomeric p53 subdomain with mitochondrial targeting signals from pro-apoptotic Bak or Bax. Pharm Res, 31(9), 2503-15.
  4. Okal A, Cornillie S, Matissek SJ, Matissek KJ, Cheatham TE 3rd, Lim CS (2014). Re-engineered p53 chimera with enhanced homo-oligomerization that maintains tumor suppressor activity. Mol Pharm, 11(7), 2442-52.
  5. Okal A, Matissek KJ, Matissek SJ, Price R, Salama ME, Janat-Amsbury MM, Lim CS (2014). Re-engineered p53 activates apoptosis in vivo and causes primary tumor regression in a dominant negative breast cancer xenograft model. Gene Ther, 21(10), 903-12.
  6. Woessner DW, Lim CS (2013). Disrupting BCR-ABL in combination with secondary leukemia-specific pathways in CML cells leads to enhanced apoptosis and decreased proliferation. Mol Pharm, 10(1), 270-7.
  7. Miller GD, Woessner DW, Sirch MJ, Lim CS (2013). Multidomain targeting of Bcr-Abl by disruption of oligomerization and tyrosine kinase inhibition: toward eradication of CML. Mol Pharm, 10(9), 3475-83.
  8. Mossalam M, Soto J, Lim CS, Abel ED (2013). Solid phase synthesis of mitochondrial triphenylphosphonium-vitamin E metabolite using a lysine linker for reversal of oxidative stress. PLoS One, 8(1), e53272.
  9. Davis JR, Mossalam M, Lim CS (2013). Controlled access of p53 to the nucleus regulates its proteasomal degradation by MDM2. Mol Pharm, 10(4), 1340-9.
  10. Reaz S, Mossalam M, Okal A, Lim CS (2013). A single mutant, A276S of p53, turns the switch to apoptosis. Mol Pharm, 10(4), 1350-9.
  11. Okal A, Mossalam M, Matissek KJ, Dixon AS, Moos PJ, Lim CS (2013). A chimeric p53 evades mutant p53 transdominant inhibition in cancer cells. Mol Pharm, 10(10), 3922-33.
  12. Matissek KJ, Mossalam M, Okal A, Lim CS (2013). The DNA binding domain of p53 is sufficient to trigger a potent apoptotic response at the mitochondria. Mol Pharm, 10(10), 3592-602.
  13. Dixon AS, Constance JE, Tanaka T, Rabbitts TH, Lim CS (2012). Changing the subcellular location of the oncoprotein Bcr-Abl using rationally designed capture motifs. Pharm Res, 29(4), 1098-109.
  14. Constance JE, Despres SD, Nishida A, Lim CS (2012). Selective targeting of c-Abl via a cryptic mitochondrial targeting signal activated by cellular redox status in leukemic and breast cancer cells. Pharm Res, 29(8), 2317-28.
  15. Dixon AS, Miller GD, Bruno BJ, Constance JE, Woessner DW, Fidler TP, Robertson JC, Cheatham TE 3rd, Lim CS (2012). Improved coiled-coil design enhances interaction with Bcr-Abl and induces apoptosis. Mol Pharm, 9(1), 187-95.
  16. Dixon AS, Miller GD, Bruno BJ, Constance JE, Woessner DW, Fidler TP, Robertson JC, Cheatham TE 3rd, Lim CS (2012). Correction to "improved coiled-coil design enhances interaction with bcr-abl and induces apoptosis". Mol Pharm, 9(5), 1535.
  17. Davis JR, Mossalam M, Lim CS (2012). Utilizing the estrogen receptor ligand-binding domain for controlled protein translocation to the insoluble fraction. Pharm Res, 29(12), 3455-63.
  18. Constance JE, Woessner DW, Matissek KJ, Mossalam M, Lim CS (2012). Enhanced and selective killing of chronic myelogenous leukemia cells with an engineered BCR-ABL binding protein and imatinib. Mol Pharm, 9(11), 3318-29.
  19. Mossalam M, Matissek KJ, Okal A, Constance JE, Lim CS (2012). Direct induction of apoptosis using an optimal mitochondrially targeted p53. Mol Pharm, 9(5), 1449-58.
  20. Dixon AS, Pendley SS, Bruno BJ, Woessner DW, Shimpi AA, Cheatham TE 3rd, Lim CS (2011). Disruption of Bcr-Abl coiled coil oligomerization by design. J Biol Chem, 286(31), 27751-60.
  21. Dixon AS, Lim CS (2010). The nuclear translocation assay for intracellular protein-protein interactions and its application to the Bcr coiled-coil domain. Biotechniques, 49(1), 519-24.
  22. Cadwallader AB, Rollins DE, Lim CS (2010). Effect of anabolic-androgenic steroids and glucocorticoids on the kinetics of hAR and hGR nucleocytoplasmic translocation. Mol Pharm, 7(3), 689-98.
  23. Dixon AS, Kakar M, Schneider KM, Constance JE, Paullin BC, Lim CS (2009). Controlling subcellular localization to alter function: Sending oncogenic Bcr-Abl to the nucleus causes apoptosis. J Control Release, 140(3), 245-9.
  24. Kakar M, Cadwallader AB, Davis JR, Lim CS (2007). Signal sequences for targeting of gene therapy products to subcellular compartments: the role of CRM1 in nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the protein switch. Pharm Res, 24(11), 2146-55.
  25. Kakar M, Davis JR, Kern SE, Lim CS (2007). Optimizing the protein switch: altering nuclear import and export signals, and ligand binding domain. J Control Release, 120(3), 220-32.
  26. Davis JR, Kakar M, Lim CS (2007). Controlling protein compartmentalization to overcome disease. Pharm Res, 24(1), 17-27.
  27. Kakar M, Kanwal C, Davis JR, Li H, Lim CS (2006). Geldanamycin, an inhibitor of Hsp90, blocks cytoplasmic retention of progesterone receptors and glucocorticoid receptors via their respective ligand binding domains. AAPS J, 8(4), E718-28.
  28. Li H, Fidler ML, Lim CS (2005). Effect of initial subcellular localization of progesterone receptor on import kinetics and transcriptional activity. Mol Pharm, 2(6), 509-18.
  29. Kanwal C, Mu S, Kern SE, Lim CS (2004). Bidirectional on/off switch for controlled targeting of proteins to subcellular compartments. J Control Release, 98(3), 379-93.
  30. Li H, Yan G, Kern SE, Lim CS (2003). Correlation among agonist dose, rate of import, and transcriptional activity of liganded progesterone receptor B isoform in living cells. Pharm Res, 20(10), 1574-80.
  31. Kanwal C, Li H, Lim CS (2002). Model system to study classical nuclear export signals. AAPS PharmSci, 4(3), E18.
  32. Baumann CT, Ma H, Wolford R, Reyes JC, Maruvada P, Lim C, Yen PM, Stallcup MR, Hager GL (2001). The glucocorticoid receptor interacting protein 1 (GRIP1) localizes in discrete nuclear foci that associate with ND10 bodies and are enriched in components of the 26S proteasome. Mol Endocrinol, 15(4), 485-500.
  33. Lim CS, Baumann CT, Htun H, Xian W, Irie M, Smith CL, Hager GL (1999). Differential localization and activity of the A- and B-forms of the human progesterone receptor using green fluorescent protein chimeras. Mol Endocrinol, 13(3), 366-75.
  34. Baumann CT, Lim CS, Hager GL (1998). Simultaneous visualization of the yellow and green forms of the green fluorescent protein in living cells. J Histochem Cytochem, 46(9), 1073-6.
  35. Lim CS, Hunt CA (1997). Synthesis of DNA dumbbells: chemical vs. enzymatic ligation of self-complementary oligonucleotides. Nucleosides and Nucleotides, 16(1-2), 41-51.
  36. Lim CS, Jabrane-Ferrat N, Fontes JD, Okamoto H, Garovoy MR, Peterlin BM, Hunt CA (1997). Sequence-independent inhibition of RNA transcription by DNA dumbbells and other decoys. Nucleic Acids Res, 25(3), 575-81.
  37. Guy RH, Kalia YN, Lim CS, Nonato LB, Turner NG (1996). Drug smuggling- creative ways to cross biological barriers. Chemistry in Britain, 32(7), 42-45.
  38. Lim CS, Hunt CA (1994). Sequential staining of short oligonucleotides in polyacrylamide gels with ethidium bromide and methylene blue. Biotechniques, 17(4), 626, 628.


  1. Miller GD, Bruno BJ, Lim CS (2014). Resistant mutations in CML and Ph(+)ALL - role of ponatinib. [Review]. Biologics, 8, 243-54.
  2. Bruno BJ, Miller GD, Lim CS (2013). Basics and recent advances in peptide and protein drug delivery. [Review]. Therapeutic Delivery, 4(11), 1443-67.
  3. Constance JE, Lim CS (2012). Targeting malignant mitochondria with therapeutic peptides. [Review]. Ther Deliv, 3(8), 961-79.
  4. Mossalam M, Dixon AS, Lim CS (2010). Controlling subcellular delivery to optimize therapeutic effect. [Review]. Ther Deliv, 1(1), 169-93.
  5. Hager GL, Lim CS, Elbi C, Baumann CT (2000). Trafficking of nuclear receptors in living cells. [Review]. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol, 74(5), 249-54.
  6. Baumann CT, Lim CS, Hager GL (1999). Intracellular localization and trafficking of steroid receptors. [Review]. Cell Biochem Biophys, 31(2), 119-27.


  1. Lim CS, Bruno BJ, Miller GD, and Dixon AS (2015). Peptide Inhibitors of Bcr-Abl Oligomerization. U.S. Patent No. PCT/US2015/022417. Washington, D.C.:U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
  2. Lim CS and Okal A (2014). Oligomerization Domain of p53 to Bypass the Dominant Negative Effect of Mutant p53. U.S. Patent No. PCT/US2015/014855. Washington, D.C.:U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
  3. Lim, CS, Matissek, KM, and Okal, A (2014). Targeting p53 and its DNA Binding Domain. U.S. Patent No. PCT/US2015/014851. Washington, D.C.:U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.


  1. Miller GD, Dixon AS, Bruno BJ, Constance JE, Woessner DW and Lim CS (2012). Improved Coiled-Coil Design Enhances Interaction with Bcr-Abl and Induces Apoptosis (Abstract #3852). Poster session presented at AACR Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL.
  2. Lim CS (2003). Mechanism and Role of Export in the Differential Localization of Progesterone Receptor Isoforms. Poster session presented at AAPS National Meeting, Salt Lake City, UT.
  3. Lim CS (2003). Liganded Progesterone Receptor B Isoform in Living Cells: correlation Between Agonist Dose, Rate of Import, and Transcriptional Activity. Poster session presented at AAPS National Meeting, Salt Lake City, UT.
  4. Lim CS (2002). The Role of Export in the Differential Localization of the 2 Isoforms of the Progesterone Receptor. Poster session presented at The Endocrine Society National Meeting, San Francisco, CA.
  5. Lim CS (2002). Progesterone Receptor B-isoform in Breast Cancer Cells: Correlation of Drug Dose to Receptor Transport Rate. Poster session presented at AAPS National Meeting, Toronto.
  6. Lim CS (2001). Differential Localization of the Human Progesterone Receptor: Is a Nuclear Export Signal Involved? Poster session presented at AAPS National Meeting, Denver, CO.
  7. Lim CS (2000). Steroid Hormone Receptor Trafficking in Living Cells. Poster session presented at AAPS National Meeting, Indianapolis, IN.
  8. Lim CS (1999). Green fluorescent protein chimeras reveal differences between the A and B forms of the human progesterone receptor. Poster session presented at Chromatin, Transcription, and DNA Replication, NIH, Bethesda, MD.
  9. Lim CS (1999). Subcellular localization of the A- and B- forms of the human progesterone receptor using green fluorescent protein chimeras. Poster session presented at Endo '99 (The Endocrine Society's 81st Annual Meeting), San Diego, CA.
  10. Lim CS 2nd Author (1999). PML colocalizes with GRIP1 and functions in glucocorticoid receptor-dependent transcription. Poster session presented at American Society for Cell Biology's 39th Annual Meeting, Washington DC.
  11. Lim CS (1998). Green fluorescent protein chimeras reveal differences between the A- and B- forms of the human progesterone receptor. Poster session presented at AAPS National Meeting, San Francisco, CA.
  12. Lim CS (1998). Green fluorescent protein-progesterone receptor chimeras. Poster session presented at Co-Activators and Co-Repressors in Gene Expression, NIH, Bethesda, MD.
  13. Lim CS (1997). Multimerization of steroid hormone response elements: an artificial array for hormone receptor targeting. Poster session presented at AAPS National Meeting, Boston, MA.