Brian C. Sauer, PhD, MS

Research Interests

  • Pharmacoepidemiology
  • Medical Informatics
  • Health Care Quality and Patient Safety
  • Quality of Medication Use
  • Causal Inference

Languages

  • English

Academic Information

  • Departments: Biomedical Informatics - Adjunct Associate Professor, Family & Preventive Medicine - Adjunct Associate Professor, Internal Medicine - Associate Professor, Pharmacotherapy - Adjunct Assistant Professor, Population Health Sciences - Adjunct Associate Professor
  • Divisions: Biostatistics, Epidemiology, Public Health

Academic Office Information

  • 801-755-1955
  • Veterans Administration Medical Center
    SL IDEAS Center (182)
    500 S Foothill Blvd
    Salt Lake City, UT 84149

Academic Bio

My research interests include pharmacoepidemiology, comparative effectiveness research, medical informatics, and causal inference. My goals are to develop new knowledge and methods that improve the research process and realize them in applied research. We are accomplishing this by improving our theoretical understanding of research and causal inference. We are also developing methods to improve the transparency and reproducibility of our database research. I have received funding from the Veterans Health Administration and the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership (OMOP) to develop Transparent ReUsable database and Statistical Tools (TRUST), which are analytic modules that execute specific data transformation and analytic tasks. Modules are compiled to develop workflows that can be automated, shared and reused by other investigators. We want to establish a social network of epidemiologists, biostatisticians and health services research for the purpose of collaborating and sharing research materials such as program code and analytic modules.

I serve on multiple working groups to develop guidelines for database management and observational comparative effectiveness research. I have used my role as one of the COIN center analytic core leads to develop and implement templates and standard operating procedures for epidemiological data management. We are also developing principles of epidemiologic data management and a framework for integrating project plans across research teams and roles.

Education History

Type School Degree
Graduate Training University of Utah
Public Health Informatics
M.S.
Fellowship Veterans Affairs Medical Center
Medical Informatics
Fellow
Doctoral Training University of Florida
Pharmacoepidemiology
Ph.D.
Undergraduate University of Florida
Psychology (Biological)
B.S.

Selected Publications

Journal Article

  1. Nord JW Jr, Berry A, Stults B, Burningham Z, Beddhu S, Sauer BC (2017). Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a Patient-Centered Educational Mailer Designed to Improve Statin Adherence: A Pragmatic Trial. EGEMS (Wash DC), 4(1), 1256.
  2. Jones BE, Brown KA, Jones MM, Huttner BD, Greene T, Sauer BC, Madaras-Kelly K, Rubin MA, Bidwell Goetz M, Samore MH (2017). Variation in Empiric Coverage Versus Detection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Hospitalizations for Community-Onset Pneumonia Across 128 US Veterans Affairs Medical Centers. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol, 38(8), 937-944.
  3. Xu Y, Zhou X, Suehs BT, Hartzema AG, Kahn MG, Moride Y, Sauer BC, Liu Q, Moll K, Pasquale MK, Nair VP, Bate A (2015). A Comparative Assessment of Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership and Mini-Sentinel Common Data Models and Analytics: Implications for Active Drug Safety Surveillance. Drug Saf, 38(8), 749-65.
  4. Jones BE, Sauer B, Jones MM, Campo J, Damal K, He T, Ying J, Greene T, Goetz MB, Neuhauser MM, Hicks LA, Samore MH (2015). Variation in Outpatient Antibiotic Prescribing for Acute Respiratory Infections in the Veteran Population: A Cross-sectional Study. Ann Intern Med, 163(2), 73-80.
  5. Smith EG, Austin KL, Kim HM, Eisen SV, Kilbourne AM, Miller DR, Zivin K, Hannemann C, Sauer BC, Valenstein M (2015). Mortality associated with lithium and valproate treatment of US Veterans Health Administration patients with mental disorders. Br J Psychiatry, 207(1), 55-63.
  6. Walsh JA, Zhou X, Clegg DO, Teng C, Cannon GW, Sauer B (2015). Mortality in American Veterans with the HLA-B27 gene. J Rheumatol, 42(4), 638-44.
  7. Nelson SD, Lu CC, Teng CC, Leng J, Cannon GW, He T, Zeng Q, Halwani A, Sauer B (2015). The use of natural language processing of infusion notes to identify outpatient infusions. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 24(1), 86-92.
  8. Cannon GW, DuVall SL, Haroldsen CL, Caplan L, Curtis JR, Michaud K, Mikuls TR, Reimold A, Collier DH, Harrison DJ, Joseph GJ, Sauer BC (2014). Persistence and dose escalation of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors in US veterans with rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol, 41(10), 1935-43.
  9. Lonardo NW, Mone MC, Nirula R, Kimball EJ, Ludwig K, Zhou X, Sauer BC, Nechodom K, Teng C, Barton RG (2014). Propofol is associated with favorable outcomes compared with benzodiazepines in ventilated intensive care unit patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 189(11), 1383-94.
  10. Lucila Ohno-Machado, Zia Agha, Douglas S Bell, Lisa Dahm, Michele E Day, Jason N Doctor, Davera Gabriel, Maninder K Kahlon, Katherine K Kim, Michael Hogarth, Michael E Matheny, Daniella Meeker, Jonathan R Nebeker, Frederic Resnic, Dmitry Khodyakov, Lattice Armstead, Travis Nagler, Sam Morley, Nicholas Anderson, Dan Cooper, Dan Phillips, David Heber, Zhaoping Li, Michael K Ong, Ayan Patel, Marianne Zachariah, Jane C Burns, Lori B Daniels, Son Doan, Claudiu Farcas, Rita Germann-Kurtz, Xiaoqian Jiang, Hyeon-eui Kim, Paulina Paul, Howard Taras, Adriana Tremoulet, Shuang Wang, Wenhong Zhu, Douglas Berman, Angela Rizk-Jackson, Mike DArcy, Carl Kesselman, Tara Knight, Laura Pearlman, Paul Heidenreich, Dena Rifkin, Carl Stepnowsky, Tania Zamora, Scott L DuVall, Lewis J Frey, Jeffrey Scehnet, Brian C Sauer, Julio C Facelli, Ram K Gouripeddi, Jason Denton, Fern FitzHenry, James Fly, Vincent Messina, Freneka Minter, Lalit Nookala, Heidi Sullivan, Theodore Speroff, Dax Westerman (04/29/2014). pSCANNER: patient-centered Scalable National Network for Effectiveness Research. J Am Med Inform Assoc, online, amiajnl-2014-00.
  11. Sauer B, Nebeker J, Shen S, Rupper R, West S, Shinogle JA, Xu W, Lohr KN, Samore M (2014). Methodological framework to identify possible adverse drug reactions using population-based administrative data. F1000Res, 3, 258.
  12. Sauer BC, Brookhart MA, Roy J, VanderWeele T (2013). A review of covariate selection for non-experimental comparative effectiveness research. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 22(11), 1139-45.
  13. Porucznik CA, Johnson EM, Rolfs RT, Sauer BC (2013). Opioid prescribing knowledge and practices: provider survey following promulgation of guidelines-Utah, 2011. J Opioid Manag, 9(3), 217-24.
  14. Porucznik CA, Crook J, Johnson EM, Rolfs RT, Sauer BC (1/1/2014). Specialty of Prescribers Associated with Opioid Fatalities in Utah, 2002-2010. Pain Med, 15(1), 5.
  15. Johnson EM, Lanier WA, Merrill RM, Crook J, Porucznik CA, Rolfs RT, Sauer B (2013). Unintentional prescription opioid-related overdose deaths: description of decedents by next of kin or best contact, Utah, 2008-2009. J Gen Intern Med, 28(4), 522-9.
  16. Gundlapalli A, Divita G, Carter M, Shen S, Palmer M, Forbush T, South B, Redd A, Sauer B, Samore M (03/2013). Extracting Surveillance Data from Templated Sections of an Electronic Medical Note: Challenges and Opportunities. OJPHI, 5(1).
  17. Cheng M, Sauer B, Johnson E, Porucznik C, Hegmann K (2013). Comparison of opioid-related deaths by work-related injury. Am J Ind Med, 56(3), 308-16.
  18. Sauer, BC, Helper CD (02/2013). Application of system-level root cause analysis for drug quality and safety problems: A case study. Res Social Adm Pharm, 9(1), 49-59.
  19. Johnson ES, Bartman BA, Briesacher BA, Fleming NS, Gerhard T, Kornegay CJ, Nourjah P, Sauer B, Schumock GT, Sedrakyan A, Sturmer T, West SL, Schneeweiss S (01/2013). The incident user design in comparative effectiveness research. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 22(1), 1-6.
  20. Nelson RE, Nebeker JR, Sauer BC, LaFleur J (2012). Factors associated with screening or treatment initiation among male United States veterans at risk for osteoporosis fracture. Bone, 50(4), 983-8.
  21. Hope CJ, Garvin JH, Sauer BC (2012). Information extraction from narrative data. Am J Health Syst Pharm, 69(6), 455, 460-1.
  22. Hall GC, Sauer B, Bourke A, Brown JS, Reynolds MW, LoCasale R (2012). Guidelines for good database selection and use in pharmacoepidemiology research. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 21(1), 1-10.
  23. Cannon GW, Mikuls TR, Hayden CL, Ying J, Curtis JR, Reimold AM, Caplan L, Kerr GS, Richards JS, Johnson DS, Sauer BC (2011). Merging Veterans Affairs rheumatoid arthritis registry and pharmacy data to assess methotrexate adherence and disease activity in clinical practice. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken), 63(12), 1680-90.
  24. LaFleur J, Nelson RE, Sauer BC, Nebeker JR (2011). Overestimation of the effects of adherence on outcomes: a case study in healthy user bias and hypertension. Heart, 97(22), 1862-9.
  25. Rubin MA, Mayer J, Greene T, Sauer BC, Hota B, Trick W, Jernigan JA, Samore MH (2008). An agent-based model for evaluating surveillance methods for catheter-related bloodstream infection. AMIA Annu Symp Proc, 631-5.
  26. Nebeker JR, Yarnold PR, Soltysik RC, Sauer BC, Sims SA, Samore MH, Rupper RW, Swanson KM, Savitz LA, Shinogle J, Xu W (2007). Developing indicators of inpatient adverse drug events through nonlinear analysis using administrative data. Med Care, 45(10 Supl 2), S81-8.
  27. Rupper RW, Bair BD, Sauer BC, Nebeker JR, Shinogle J, Samore M (2007). Out-of-pocket pharmacy expenditures for veterans under medicare part D. Med Care, 45(10 Supl 2), S77-80.
  28. Samore, MH, Shen, S, Greene, T, Stoddard, G, Sauer, B, Shinogle, J, Nebeker, J, Harbarth, S (2007). A Simulation-based Evaluation of Methods to Estimate the Impact of an Adverse Event on Hospital Length of Stay. Med Care, 45(10 (Supl 2)), S108-15.

Book Chapter

  1. Li L, Greene T, Sauer BC (2015). Chapter 7: Propensity score analysis with matching weights. In Pan W, Bai H (Eds.), Propensity Score Analysis: Fundamentals and Developments (2). New York: Guilford Press.
  2. Sauer B, Vanderweele T (2/2013). Supplement 2: The Use of Directed Acyclic Graphs on Non-experimental Comparative Effectiveness Research. In Velentgas P, Dreyer NA, Nourjah P, Smith SR, Torchia MM (Eds.), Developing a Protocol for Observational Comparative Effectiveness Research: A Users Guide. Rockville: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
  3. Sauer B, Brookhart MA, Roy JA, VanderWeele TJ (02/2013). Chapter 7: Covariate Selection. In Velentgas P, Dreyer NA, Nourjah P, Smith SR, Torchia MM (Eds.), Developing a Protocol for Observational Comparative Effectiveness Research: A Users Guide. Rockville: Agency for HealthCare Research and Quality.

Conference Proceedings

  1. Rasmussen, KM, Patil, V, Li, C, Sauer, BC, Halwani, A (2018). Understand the Survival Outcomes of Black and White Veterans with Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (mCRPC). 2018 AVAHO Meeting, Chicago, IL: Association of VA Hematology/Oncology.
  2. Rasmussen, KM, Patil, V, Burningham, Z, Narayanan, S, Lin, S, Carroll, S, Hsu, L, Graff, JN, Dreicer, R, Gupta, S, Low, CA, Sauer, BC, Halwani, A (2017). The Role of Academic Affiliation in the Treatment of Metastatic Castrate-Resistant Prostate Cancer in the Veterans Health Administration. 2017 AVAHO Meeting, Denver, CO: Association of VA Hematology/Oncology.
  3. Patil, V, Rasmussen, KM, Sauer, BC, Halwani, A (2018). Implementation of Chemo and Anti-Neoplastic Extractor Cycle and Regimen Estimator (CANCER CARE) in Follicular Lymphoma Patients Treated in VA. 2018 AVAHO Meeting, Chicago, IL: Association of VA Hematology/Oncology.
  4. Halwani, A, Burningham, Z, Rasmussen, KM, Patil, V, Narayanan, S, Lin, S, Carroll, S, Hsu, L, Graff, JN, Dreicer, R, Gupta, S, Low, CA, Sauer, BC (2017). Practice Patterns in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (mCRPC): Evidence from the Veterans Health Administration. Madrid, Spain: European Society for Medical Oncology.
  5. Patil, V, Rasmussen, KM, Burningham, Z, Low, C, Gupta, S, Sauer, BC, Halwani, A (2017). Using Natural Language Processing in Radiology Reports to Identify the Presence of Metastatic Disease in Veterans with Prostate Cancer. 2017 AVAHO Meeting, Denver, CO: Association of VA Hematology/Oncology.
  6. Halwani, A, Friedman, DR, Patil, V, Rasmussen, KM, Sauer, BC, Kelley, MJ (2018). VA Symptom Assessment Scale (VSAS): Symptom Prevalence, Reliability and Internal Consistency. 2018 AVAHO Meeting, Chicago, IL: Association of VA Hematology/Oncology.
  7. Halwani, A, Rasmussen, KM, Patil, V, Burningham, Z, Low, C, Meissner, B, Kapustyan, T, Keim, H, Lawrence, N, Walker, J, Sauer, BC (2017). Examining methods for systematically identifying cytogenetic testing among Chronic Lymphoblastic Leukemia patients. 2017 AVAHO Annual Meeting, Denver, CO: Association of VA Hematology/Oncology.
  8. Sauer B, Teng CC, Leng J, Mikuls TR, Curtis JR, Stolshek BS, Tang D, Cannon GW (2015). Higher Persistence and Adherence with Combination Therapy with Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitor+Methotrexate Combination Versus Triple Therapy in US Veterans with Rheumatoid Arthritis. 2015 ACR/ARHP Annual Meeting, Arthritis Rheumatol, 67(suppl 10).
  9. Sauer BC, Teng MS CC, Accortt NA, Collier DH, Lin TC, Cannon GW (2018). Thresholds for Disease Activity Measures DAS28, CDAI, and RAPID3 Do Not Align with Clinical Practice Patterns of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Disease Management Decisions. 2018 ACR/ARHP Annual Meeting, 70(suppl 10).
  10. Cannon GW, DuVall SL, Hayden CL, Caplan L, Curtis JR, Michaud K, Mikuls TR, Reimold AM, Collier DH, Joseph G, Harrison DJ, Sauer BC (2013). US Veterans With Rheumatoid Arthritis Who Switch Among Tumor Necrosis Factor Blocking Agents Have No Additional Clinical Benefit With The Change In Therapy and Incur Higher Costs. 2013 ACR/ARHP Annual Meeting.
  11. Sauer B, Teng C-C, He T, Leng J, Lu C-C, Shah N, Harrison DJ, Tang D, Cannon GW (2014). Treatment Patterns of Biologics Used in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Ankylosing Spondylitis in the US Veterans Population. 2014 ACR/ARHP Annual Meeting, Arthritis Rheumatol.
  12. Cannon GW, Teng C-C, He T, Leng J, Lu C-C, Tang D, Shah N, Harrison DJ, Sauer B (2014). Estimation of Cost per Effectively Treated Patients with Biologic Disease Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs in US Veterans with Rheumatoid Arthritis. 2014 ACR/ARHP Annual Meeting, Arthritis Rheumatol.
  13. Cannon GW, Rogas J, Bell N, Baker J, Kerr GS, Gaffo A, Richards JS, Barton J, Schwab P, Mikuls TR, Singh N, Caplan L, Lazaro D, Reimold A, Sauer B (10/2018). An Electronic Audit, Reporting, and Data Correction System Improves the Quantity and Quality of Observational Data Collected for US Veterans Enrolled in the Veterans Affairs Rheumatoid Arthritis Registry. 2018 ACR/ARHP Annual Meeting, Arthritis Rheumatol, 70(suppl 10).
  14. Overbury RS, Pei S, Penmetsa G, Cannon GW, Clegg DO, Sauer B, Walsh J (10/2018). Identification of Axial Spondyloarthritis Patients in a Large Dataset: The Development and Validation of Novel Methods. 2018 ACR/ARHP Annual Meeting, Arthritis Rheumatol, 70(suppl 10).
  15. England BR, Sayles H, Roul P, Ganti A, Sokolove J, Robinson WH, Cannon GW, Sauer B, Baker J, Thiele GM, Mikuls TR (10/2018). Serum Cytokine and Chemokine Concentrations Predict Incident Cancer in US Veterans with Rheumatoid Arthritis. 2018 ACR/ARHP Annual Meeting, Arthritis Rheumatol, 70(suppl 10).
  16. Sauer, B, Teng, C-C, Accortt, N, Burningham, Z, Collier, D, Trivedi, M, Cannon, GW (2016). Models Using Claims-Based Administrative Data Are Poor Predictors of Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity in VA Rheumatoid Arthritis (VARA) Patients. 2016 ACR/ARHP Annual Meeting, Arthritis & Rheumatology, 68(suppl 10).
  17. Halwani, A, Burningham, Z, Rasmussen, K, Patil, V, Low, C, Reyes, C, Masaquel, A, Henderson, K, DeLong-Sieg, E, Nixon, M, Sauer, BC (2017). Have First Line Practice Patterns in the Treatment of Follicular Lymphoma Changed with the Adoption of Maintenance Rituximab? Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma and Leukemia, 17, S363-S364.
  18. England, BR, Thiele, GM, Duryee, MJ, Klassen, L, Sokolove, J, Robinson, WH, Anderson, D, Sayles, H, Michaud, K, Caplan, L (11/2015). Associations of Serum Anti-malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (maa) Antibodies with Cardiovascular and Respiratory Mortality in Men with Rheumatoid Arthritis: abstract Number: 1574. 2015 ACR/ARHP Annual Meeting, Arthritis & Rheumatology, 67(suppl 10), 1964-1965.
  19. England, BR, Sokolove, J, Robinson, WH, Thiele, GM, Ganti, AK, Sayles, H, Michaud, K, Caplan, L, Davis, LA, Cannon, GW (9/2015). Circulating Cytokine/chemokine Concentrations Predict Cancer Mortality in Men with Rheumatoid Arthritis: abstract Number: 3236. 2015 ACR/ARHP Annual Meeting, Arthritis & Rheumatology, 67(suppl 10), 3879-3881.
  20. Sauer BC, Nebeker JR, Shen S, Rupper R, Samore M (2011). Identification of possible adverse drug reactions using population-based administrative data. In Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ubon Ratchathani University, Thailand (Eds.), Patient Safety Annu Symp, Ubon, Thailand: ISBN 978-974-523-265-5 (Thailand), Proc. 2011, 60-66.
  21. Sauer, BC, He Tao, Nebeker JR (04/30/2013). SAS® Tools for Transparent and Reproducible Research: Medication History Estimator. SAS® Global Forum 2013 proceedings, San Francisco: SAS®, 1-10.
  22. Gundlapalli A, Divita G, Carter M, Shen S, Palmer M, Forbush T, South B, Redd A, Sauer B, Samore M (01/2013). Online Journal of Public Health Informatics. OJPHI, 5(1).
  23. Sauer BC, Nebeker JR, Shen S, Rupper R, Samore M (2011). Identification of possible adverse drug reactions using population-based administrative data. In Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ubon Ratchathani University, Thailand (Eds.), Patient Safety Annu Symp, Ubon, Thailand: ISBN 978-974-523-265-5 (Thailand), Proc. 2011, 60-66.
  24. Sauer B, Nebeker J, Rupper R, Samore M (2007). Serum Potassium Monitoring and Hyperkalemia in Veterans using Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone Inhibitors. HSR&D National Meeting, Arlington, VA.
  25. Halwani, A, Rasmussen, KM, Patil, V, Li, C, Yong, C, Burningham, Z, Narayanan, S, Lin, S, Carroll, S, Mhatre, S, Graff, JN, Dreicer, R, Sauer, BC (In Press). Real-World Practice Patterns in Veterans with Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer. The Journal of Urologic Oncology.

Abstract

  1. Halwani, AS, Rasmussen, K, Patil, V, Burningham, Z, Sauer, BC (2017). Incidence of Atrial Fibrillation and Bleeding in CLL Patients Treated with Ibrutinib: Evidence from the Veterans Health Administration [Abstract]. 130(suppl 1), 5336.
  2. Halwani, A, Rasmussen, KM, Patil, V, Burningham, Z, Narayanan, S, Lin, S-W, Carroll, S, Hsu, L-I, Graff, JN, Dreicer, R, Sauer, B (2018). Abstract A055: Racial Disparities in Metastatic Castrate-Resistant Prostate Cancer (mCRPC): Evidence from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) [Abstract]. AACR Special Conference: Prostate Cancer: Advances in Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research, 78(16), A055.
  3. Halwani, A, Burningham, Z, Rasmussen, KM, Patil, V, Narayanan, S, Lin, S-W, Carroll, S, Hsu, L, Graff, JN, Dreicer, R, Gupta, S, Low, CA, Sauer, BC (2017). 804PPractice Patterns in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (mCRPC): Evidence From the Veterans Health Administration [Abstract]. 28(suppl_5).
  4. CC Lu, J Leng, G Cannon, X Zhou, DJ Harrison, N Shah, BC Sauer (05/01/2014). Accuracy of a natural language processing software designed to compute average weekly dose from narrative medication schedule [Abstract]. Value in Health 17 (3), A187-A188, 17(3), A187-A188.
  5. J Leng, CC Lu, G Cannon, CC Teng, X Zhou, T He, DJ Harrison, N Shah, BC Sauer (05/01/2014). Performance of NLP tool designed to identify and extract biologic drug infusion data from clinical notes [Abstract]. Value in Health, 17(3), A187-A187.
  6. Ghate SR, LaFleur J, Sauer B, Charland S (2008). A modified RxRisk-V comorbidity index predicts adherence with lipid lowering therapy. (Poster session presented at International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research 13th Annual International Meeting. Toronto, Ontario, Canada. May 2008) [Abstract]. Value In Health, 11(3), A185.
  7. LaFleur J, Ghate S, Sauer B (05/2008). Updating the RxRisk-V measure: Creating a crosswalk between Veterans Affairs pharmacy codes and First Databank therapeutic categories [Abstract]. Value in Health, 11(3), A191.

Report

  1. Sauer BC, Shinogle JA, Xu W, Samore M, Nebeker J, Liu Z, Rupper R, Lux L, Amoozegar J, Lohr KN (August 2008). Improving Patient Safety and Pharmacovigilance: Methods Using Observational Data and Cohort Studies (Number 6). Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

Video