Joel D. Trinity, PhD

Research Interests

  • Cardiovascular Physiology
  • Exercise and Aging
  • Hypertension
  • Blood Flow
  • Nitric Oxide
  • Endothelium, Vascular

Languages

  • English

Academic Information

  • Departments: Internal Medicine - Research Assistant Professor, Nutrition and Integrative Physiology - Adjunct Associate Professor
  • Divisions: Geriatrics

Academic Office Information

  • 512-689-2187
  • VA - Building #2
    500 S Foothill Dr, Room: 1D29A
    Salt Lake City, UT 84148

Academic Bio

Dr. Trinity is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Internal Medicine and Adjunct Assistant Professor in the Department of Nutrition and Integrative Physiology. Dr. Trinity joined the UVRL in 2009 after completing his doctoral training at The University of Texas at Austin. Utilizing an integrative approach that combines in-vivo and in-vitro techniques Dr. Trinity's research examines the on the impact of age and disease, specifically hypertension, on vascular function and blood flow regulation.

Research Statement

Current research interests include an integrative approach to the study of aging and cardiovascular function in health and disease. I am specifically focused on the complex interactions of neural control, oxidative stress, and vascular function in diseased populations including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), heart failure, and hypertension. My graduate training focused on human performance and my dissertation work used a systematic approach to study whole body physiology focusing on peripheral and central cardiovascular performance during submaximal and maximal exercise. This research included studies investigating the independent and combined effects of core temperature and skin temperature on cardiovascular performance during exercise. Other interests include how the body balances peripheral (skin and muscle) and central (heart) hemodynamics during intense exercise, primarily during fatigue. Previous research has focused on physiological adaptations to tapering in highly trained swimmers.

Education History

Type School Degree
Fellowship George E Whalen VA Medical Center
Advanced Fellow
Postdoctoral Fellowship University of Utah
Geriatrics
Postdoctoral Fellow
Doctoral Training The University of Texas at
Exercise Physiology
Ph.D.
Graduate Training The University of Texas at Austin
Kinesiology
M.A.
Undergraduate Occidental College
Kinesiology
B.A.
Undergraduate The University of California Santa Cruz
Biology

Selected Publications

Journal Article

  1. Ratchford SM, Broxterman RM, La Salle DT, Kwon OS, Hopkins PN, Richardson RS, Trinity JD (2019). Salt restriction lowers blood pressure at rest and during exercise without altering peripheral hemodynamics in hypertensive individuals. (Epub ahead of print) Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol.
  2. Broxterman RM, La Salle DT, Zhao J, Reese VR, Richardson RS, Trinity JD (2019). Influence of dietary inorganic nitrate on blood pressure and vascular function in hypertension: prospective implications for adjunctive treatment. J Appl Physiol, 127(4), 1085-1094.
  3. Trinity JD, Richardson RS (2020). Physiological Impact and Clinical Relevance of Passive Exercise/Movement. Sports Med, 49(9), 1365-1381.
  4. Broxterman RM, Witman MA, Trinity JD, Groot HJ, Rossman MJ, Park SY, Malenfant S, Gifford JR, Kwon OS, Park SH, Jarrett CL, Shields KL, Hydren JR, Bisconti AV, Owan T, Abraham A, Tandar A, Lui CY, Smith BR, Richardson RS (2019). Strong Relationship Between Vascular Function in the Coronary and Brachial Arteries. Hypertension, 74(1), 208-215.
  5. Hydren JR, Broxterman RM, Trinity JD, Gifford JR, Kwon OS, Kithas AC, Richardson RS (2019). Delineating the age-related attenuation of vascular function: Evidence supporting the efficacy of the single passive leg movement as a screening tool. J Appl Physiol (1985), 126(6), 1525-1532.
  6. Barrett-OKeefe Z, Lee JF, Ives SJ, Trinity JD, Witman MAH, Rossman MJ, Groot HJ, Sorensen JR, Morgan DE, Nelson AD, Stehlik J, Richardson RS, Wray DW (2019). α-Adrenergic receptor regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow during exercise in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol, 316(5), R512-R524.
  7. Park SK, La Salle DT, Cerbie J, Cho JM, Bledsoe A, Nelson A, Morgan DE, Richardson RS, Shiu YT, Boudina S, Trinity JD, Symons JD (2019). Elevated arterial shear rate increases indexes of endothelial cell autophagy and nitric oxide synthase activation in humans. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 316(1), H106-H112.
  8. Layec G, Blain GM, Rossman MJ, Park SY, Hart CR, Trinity JD, Gifford JR, Sidhu SK, Weavil JC, Hureau TJ, Amann M, Richardson RS (2018). Acute High-Intensity Exercise Impairs Skeletal Muscle Respiratory Capacity. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 50(12), 2409-2417.
  9. Berg OK, Kwon OS, Hureau TJ, Clifton HL, Thurston T, Le Fur Y, Jeong EK, Amann M, Richardson RS, Trinity JD, Wang E, Layec G (2018). Maximal strength training increases muscle force generating capacity and the anaerobic ATP synthesis flux without altering the cost of contraction in elderly. Exp Gerontol, 111, 154-161.
  10. Hart CR, Layec G, Trinity JD, Le Fur Y, Gifford JR, Clifton HL, Richardson RS (2018). Oxygen availability and skeletal muscle oxidative capacity in patients with peripheral artery disease: implications from in vivo and in vitro assessments. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 315(4), H897-H909.
  11. Layec G, Trinity JD, Hart CR, Le Fur Y, Zhao J, Reese V, Jeong EK, Richardson RS (2018). Impaired Muscle Efficiency but Preserved Peripheral Hemodynamics and Mitochondrial Function With Advancing Age: Evidence From Exercise in the Young, Old, and Oldest-Old. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 73(10), 1303-1312.
  12. Hart CR, Layec G, Trinity JD, Kwon OS, Zhao J, Reese VR, Gifford JR, Richardson RS (2018). Increased skeletal muscle mitochondrial free radical production in peripheral arterial disease despite preserved mitochondrial respiratory capacity. Exp Physiol, 103(6), 838-850.
  13. Gifford JR, Trinity JD, Kwon OS, Layec G, Garten RS, Park SY, Nelson AD, Richardson RS (2018). Altered skeletal muscle mitochondrial phenotype in COPD: disease vs. disuse. J Appl Physiol (1985), 124(4), 1045-1053.
  14. Trinity JD, Layec G, Hart CR, Richardson RS (2018). Sex-specific impact of aging on the blood pressure response to exercise. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 314(1), H95-H104.
  15. Broxterman RM, Trinity JD, Gifford JR, Kwon OS, Kithas AC, Hydren JR, Nelson AD, Morgan DE, Jessop JE, Bledsoe AD, Richardson RS (2017). Single passive leg movement assessment of vascular function: contribution of nitric oxide. J Appl Physiol (1985), 123(6), 1468-1476.
  16. Layec G, Hart CR, Trinity JD, Kwon OS, Rossman MJ, Broxterman RM, Le Fur Y, Jeong EK, Richardson RS (2017). Oxygen delivery and the restoration of the muscle energetic balance following exercise: implications for delayed muscle recovery in patients with COPD. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 313(1), E94-E104.
  17. Trinity JD (2017). Something is definitely better than nothing: simple strategies to prevent vascular dysfunction. Clin Sci (Lond), 131(11), 1055-1058.
  18. Venturelli M, Layec G, Trinity J, Hart CR, Broxterman RM, Richardson RS (2017). Single passive leg movement-induced hyperemia: a simple vascular function assessment without a chronotropic response. J Appl Physiol (1985), 122(1), 28-37.
  19. Layec G, Trinity JD, Hart CR, Le Fur Y, Sorensen JR, Jeong EK, Richardson RS (2016). Evidence of a metabolic reserve in the skeletal muscle of elderly people. Aging, 9(1), 52-67.
  20. Layec G, Trinity JD, Hart CR, Le Fur Y, Sorensen JR, Jeong EK, Richardson RS (2016). Evidence of a metabolic reserve in the skeletal muscle of elderly people. Aging, 9(1), 52-67.
  21. Park SY, Trinity JD, Gifford JR, Diakos NA, McCreath L, Drakos S, Richardson RS (2016). Mitochondrial function in heart failure: The impact of ischemic and non-ischemic etiology. Int J Cardiol, 220, 711-7.
  22. Trinity JD, Broxterman RM, Richardson RS (2016). Regulation of exercise blood flow: Role of free radicals. Free Radic Biol Med, 98, 90-102.
  23. Layec G, Gifford JR, Trinity JD, Hart CR, Garten RS, Park SY, Le Fur Y, Jeong EK, Richardson RS (2016). Accuracy and precision of quantitative 31P-MRS measurements of human skeletal muscle mitochondrial function. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 311(2), E358-66.
  24. Trinity JD, Wray DW, Witman MA, Layec G, Barrett-OKeefe Z, Ives SJ, Conklin JD, Reese V, Zhao J, Richardson RS (2016). Ascorbic acid improves brachial artery vasodilation during progressive handgrip exercise in the elderly through a nitric oxide-mediated mechanism. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 310(6), H765-74.
  25. Gifford JR, Garten RS, Nelson AD, Trinity JD, Layec G, Witman MA, Weavil JC, Mangum T, Hart C, Etheredge C, Jessop J, Bledsoe A, Morgan DE, Wray DW, Rossman MJ, Richardson RS (2016). Symmorphosis and skeletal muscle V̇O2 max : in vivo and in vitro measures reveal differing constraints in the exercise-trained and untrained human. J Physiol, 594(6), 1741-51.
  26. Trinity JD, Barrett-OKeefe Z, Ives SJ, Morgan G, Rossman MJ, Donato AJ, Runnels S, Morgan DE, Gmelch BS, Bledsoe AD, Richardson RS, Wray DW (2016). Endogenous endothelin-1 and femoral artery shear rate: impact of age and implications for atherosclerosis. J Hypertens, 34(2), 266-73.
  27. Gifford JR, Trinity JD, Layec G, Garten RS, Park SY, Rossman MJ, Larsen S, Dela F, Richardson RS (2015). Quadriceps exercise intolerance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the potential role of altered skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration. J Appl Physiol (1985), 119(8), 882-8.
  28. Witman MA, Garten RS, Gifford JR, Groot HJ, Trinity JD, Stehlik J, Nativi JN, Selzman CH, Drakos SG, Richardson RS (2015). Further Peripheral Vascular Dysfunction in Heart Failure Patients With a Continuous-Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device: The Role of Pulsatility. JACC Heart Fail, 3(9), 703-11.
  29. Groot HJ, Rossman MJ, Trinity JD, Layec G, Ives SJ, Richardson RS (2015). Passive leg movement-induced vasodilation in women: the impact of age. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 309(5), H995-H1002.
  30. Rossman MJ, Trinity JD, Garten RS, Ives SJ, Conklin JD, Barrett-OKeefe Z, Witman MA, Bledsoe AD, Morgan DE, Runnels S, Reese VR, Zhao J, Amann M, Wray DW, Richardson RS (2015). Oral antioxidants improve leg blood flow during exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 309(5), H977-85.
  31. Groot HJ, Trinity JD, Layec G, Rossman MJ, Ives SJ, Morgan DE, Bledsoe A, Richardson RS (2015). The role of nitric oxide in passive leg movement-induced vasodilatation with age: insight from alterations in femoral perfusion pressure. J Physiol, 593(17), 3917-28.
  32. Hart CR, Layec G, Trinity JD, Liu X, Kim SE, Groot HJ, Le Fur Y, Sorensen JR, Jeong EK, Richardson RS (2015). Evidence of Preserved Oxidative Capacity and Oxygen Delivery in the Plantar Flexor Muscles With Age. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 70(9), 1067-76.
  33. Layec G, Trinity JD, Hart CR, Kim SE, Groot HJ, Le Fur Y, Sorensen JR, Jeong EK, Richardson RS (2015). Impact of age on exercise-induced ATP supply during supramaximal plantar flexion in humans. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol, 309(4), R378-88.
  34. Barrett-OKeefe Z, Ives SJ, Trinity JD, Morgan G, Rossman MJ, Donato AJ, Runnels S, Morgan DE, Gmelch BS, Bledsoe AD, Richardson RS, Wray DW (2015). Endothelin-A-mediated vasoconstriction during exercise with advancing age. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 70(5), 554-65.
  35. Trinity JD, Groot HJ, Layec G, Rossman MJ, Ives SJ, Morgan DE, Gmelch BS, Bledsoe A, Richardson RS (2015). Passive leg movement and nitric oxide-mediated vascular function: the impact of age. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 308(6), H672-9.
  36. Layec G, Hart CR, Trinity JD, Le Fur Y, Jeong EK, Richardson RS (2015). Skeletal muscle work efficiency with age: the role of non-contractile processes. Clin Sci (Lond), 128(3), 213-23.
  37. Witman MA, Ives SJ, Trinity JD, Groot HJ, Stehlik J, Richardson RS (2015). Heart failure and movement-induced hemodynamics: partitioning the impact of central and peripheral dysfunction. Int J Cardiol, 178, 232-8.
  38. Gifford JR, Ives SJ, Park SY, Andtbacka RH, Hyngstrom JR, Mueller MT, Treiman GS, Ward C, Trinity JD, Richardson RS (2014). alpha1- and alpha2-adrenergic responsiveness in human skeletal muscle feed arteries: the role of TRPV ion channels in heat-induced sympatholysis. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 307(9), H1288-97.
  39. Donato AJ, Henson GD, Hart CR, Layec G, Trinity JD, Bramwell RC, Enz RA, Morgan RG, Reihl KD, Hazra S, Walker AE, Richardson RS, Lesniewski LA (2014). The impact of ageing on adipose structure, function and vasculature in the B6D2F1 mouse: evidence of significant multisystem dysfunction. J Physiol, 592(18), 4083-96.
  40. Park SY, Gifford JR, Andtbacka RH, Trinity JD, Hyngstrom JR, Garten RS, Diakos NA, Ives SJ, Dela F, Larsen S, Drakos S, Richardson RS (2014). Cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscle mitochondrial respiration: are all mitochondria created equal? Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 307(3), H346-52.
  41. Trinity JD, Groot HJ, Layec G, Rossman MJ, Ives SJ, Richardson RS (2014). Impact of age and body position on the contribution of nitric oxide to femoral artery shear rate: implications for atherosclerosis. Hypertension, 63(5), 1019-25.
  42. Trinity JD, Layec G, Lee JF (2014). Heterogeneity of blood flow: impact of age on muscle specific tissue perfusion during exercise. J Physiol, 592(8), 1729-30.
  43. Layec G, Trinity JD, Hart CR, Kim SE, Groot HJ, Le Fur Y, Sorensen JR, Jeong EK, Richardson RS (2014). In vivo evidence of an age-related increase in ATP cost of contraction in the plantar flexor muscles. Clin Sci (Lond), 126(8), 581-92.
  44. Trinity JD, Pahnke MD, Trombold JR, Coyle EF (2014). Impact of polyphenol antioxidants on cycling performance and cardiovascular function. Nutrients, 6(3), 1273-92.
  45. Venturelli M, Amann M, Layec G, McDaniel J, Trinity JD, Fjeldstad AS, Ives SJ, Yonnet G, Richardson RS (2014). Passive leg movement-induced hyperaemia with a spinal cord lesion: evidence of preserved vascular function. Acta Physiol (Oxf), 210(2), 429-39.
  46. Trinity JD, Wray DW, Witman MA, Layec G, Barrett-OKeefe Z, Ives SJ, Conklin JD, Reese V, Richardson RS (2013). Contribution of nitric oxide to brachial artery vasodilation during progressive handgrip exercise in the elderly. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol, 305(8), R893-9.
  47. Layec G, Haseler LJ, Trinity JD, Hart CR, Liu X, Le Fur Y, Jeong EK, Richardson RS (2013). Mitochondrial function and increased convective O2 transport: implications for the assessment of mitochondrial respiration in vivo. J Appl Physiol (1985), 115(6), 803-11.
  48. Wray DW, Witman MA, Ives SJ, McDaniel J, Trinity JD, Conklin JD, Supiano MA, Richardson RS (2013). Does brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation provide a bioassay for NO? Hypertension, 62(2), 345-51.
  49. Layec G, Trinity JD, Hart CR, Hopker J, Passfield L, Coen PM, Conley KE, Hunter GR, Fisher G, Ferguson RA, Sasaki K, Malatesta D, Maffiuletti NA, Borrani F, Minetti AE, Rice CL, Dalton BH, McNeil CJ, Power GA, Manini TM (2013). Comments on point:counterpoint: skeletal muscle mechanical efficiency does/does not increase with age. J Appl Physiol (1985), 114(8), 1114-8.
  50. Barrett-OKeefe Z, Witman MA, McDaniel J, Fjeldstad AS, Trinity JD, Ives SJ, Conklin JD, Reese V, Runnels S, Morgan DE, Sander M, Richardson RS, Wray DW (2013). Angiotensin II potentiates alpha-adrenergic vasoconstriction in the elderly. Clin Sci (Lond), 124(6), 413-22.
  51. Groot HJ, Trinity JD, Layec G, Rossman MJ, Ives SJ, Richardson RS (2013). Perfusion pressure and movement-induced hyperemia: evidence of limited vascular function and vasodilatory reserve with age. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 304(4), H610-9.
  52. Barrett-OKeefe Z, Ives SJ, Trinity JD, Morgan G, Rossman MJ, Donato AJ, Runnels S, Morgan DE, Gmelch BS, Bledsoe AD, Richardson RS, Wray DW (2013). Taming the "sleeping giant": the role of endothelin-1 in the regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow and arterial blood pressure during exercise. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 304(1), H162-9.
  53. Trinity JD, Groot HJ, Layec G, Rossman MJ, Ives SJ, Runnels S, Gmelch B, Bledsoe A, Richardson RS (2012). Nitric oxide and passive limb movement: a new approach to assess vascular function. J Physiol, 590(6), 1413-25.
  54. Trinity JD, Lee JF, Pahnke MD, Beck KC, Coyle EF (2012). Attenuated relationship between cardiac output and oxygen uptake during high-intensity exercise. Acta Physiol (Oxf), 204(3), 362-70.
  55. Venturelli M, Amann M, McDaniel J, Trinity JD, Fjeldstad AS, Richardson RS (2012). Central and peripheral hemodynamic responses to passive limb movement: the role of arousal. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 302(1), H333-9.
  56. Amann M, Runnels S, Morgan DE, Trinity JD, Fjeldstad AS, Wray DW, Reese VR, Richardson RS (2011). On the contribution of group III and IV muscle afferents to the circulatory response to rhythmic exercise in humans. J Physiol, 589(Pt 15), 3855-66.
  57. Trinity JD, McDaniel J, Venturelli M, Fjeldstad AS, Ives SJ, Witman MA, Barrett-OKeefe Z, Amann M, Wray DW, Richardson RS (2011). Impact of body position on central and peripheral hemodynamic contributions to movement-induced hyperemia: implications for rehabilitative medicine. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 300(5), H1885-91.
  58. Wray DW, Witman MA, Ives SJ, McDaniel J, Fjeldstad AS, Trinity JD, Conklin JD, Supiano MA, Richardson RS (2011). Progressive handgrip exercise: evidence of nitric oxide-dependent vasodilation and blood flow regulation in humans. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 300(3), H1101-7.
  59. McDaniel J, Hayman MA, Ives S, Fjeldstad AS, Trinity JD, Wray DW, Richardson RS (2010). Attenuated exercise induced hyperaemia with age: mechanistic insight from passive limb movement. J Physiol, 588(Pt 22), 4507-17.
  60. Trinity JD, Amann M, McDaniel J, Fjeldstad AS, Barrett-OKeefe Z, Runnels S, Morgan DE, Wray DW, Richardson RS (2010). Limb movement-induced hyperemia has a central hemodynamic component: evidence from a neural blockade study. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 299(5), H1693-700.
  61. Trinity JD, Pahnke MD, Lee JF, Coyle EF (2010). Interaction of hyperthermia and heart rate on stroke volume during prolonged exercise. J Appl Physiol (1985), 109(3), 745-51.
  62. Pahnke MD, Trinity JD, Zachwieja JJ, Stofan JR, Hiller WD, Coyle EF (2010). Serum sodium concentration changes are related to fluid balance and sweat sodium loss. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 42(9), 1669-74.
  63. Dingwell JB, Joubert JE, Diefenthaeler F, Trinity JD (2008). Changes in muscle activity and kinematics of highly trained cyclists during fatigue. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng, 55(11), 2666-74.
  64. Trinity JD, Pahnke MD, Sterkel JA, Coyle EF (2008). Maximal power and performance during a swim taper. Int J Sports Med, 29(6), 500-6.
  65. Trinity JD, Pahnke MD, Reese EC, Coyle EF (2006). Maximal mechanical power during a taper in elite swimmers. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 38(9), 1643-9.

Commentary

  1. Trinity JD (2017). Something is Definitely Better than Nothing: Simple Strategies to Prevent Vascular Dysfunction. Clin Sci (Lond), 131(11), 1055-1058.