Joel D. Trinity, PhD

Research Interests

  • Cardiovascular Physiology
  • Exercise and Aging
  • Hypertension
  • Blood Flow
  • Nitric Oxide
  • Endothelium, Vascular


  • English

Academic Information

  • Departments: Internal Medicine - Associate Professor, Nutrition and Integrative Physiology - Adjunct Associate Professor
  • Divisions: Geriatrics

Academic Bio

Dr. Trinity is an Associate Professor in the Department of Internal Medicine and Adjunct Assistant Professor in the Department of Nutrition and Integrative Physiology. Dr. Trinity joined the UVRL in 2009 after completing his doctoral training at The University of Texas at Austin. Utilizing an integrative approach that combines in-vivo and in-vitro techniques Dr. Trinity's research examines the on the impact of age and disease, specifically hypertension, on vascular function and blood flow regulation.

Research Statement

Current research interests include an integrative approach to the study of aging and cardiovascular function in health and disease. I am specifically focused on the complex interactions of neural control, oxidative stress, and vascular function in diseased populations including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), heart failure, and hypertension. My graduate training focused on human performance and my dissertation work used a systematic approach to study whole body physiology focusing on peripheral and central cardiovascular performance during submaximal and maximal exercise. This research included studies investigating the independent and combined effects of core temperature and skin temperature on cardiovascular performance during exercise. Other interests include how the body balances peripheral (skin and muscle) and central (heart) hemodynamics during intense exercise, primarily during fatigue. Previous research has focused on physiological adaptations to tapering in highly trained swimmers.

Education History

Type School Degree
Fellowship George E Whalen VA Medical Center
Advanced Fellow
Postdoctoral Fellowship University of Utah
Postdoctoral Fellow
Doctoral Training The University of Texas at
Exercise Physiology
Graduate Training The University of Texas at Austin
Undergraduate Occidental College
Undergraduate The University of California Santa Cruz

Selected Publications

Journal Article

  1. Lewis MT, Blain GM, Hart CR, Layec G, Rossman MJ, Park SY, Trinity JD, Gifford JR, Sidhu SK, Weavil JC, Hureau TJ, Jessop JE, Bledsoe AD, Amann M, Richardson RS (2021). Acute high-intensity exercise and skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory function: The role of metabolic perturbation. (Epub ahead of print) Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol.
  2. Trinity JD, Craig JC, Fermoyle CC, McKenzie AI, Lewis MT, Park SH, Rondina MT, Richardson RS (2021). Impact of presymptomatic COVID-19 on vascular and skeletal muscle function: a case study. J Appl Physiol, 130(6), 1961-1970.
  3. Craig JC, Broxterman RM, Cerbie JF, La Salle DT, Roundy CS, Jarrett CL, Richardson RS, Trinity JD (2021). The dynamic adjustment of mean arterial pressure during exercise: a potential tool for discerning cardiovascular health status. J Appl Physiol, 130(5), 1544-1554.
  4. Venturelli M, Amann M, Trinity JD, Ives SJ, Richardson RS (2020). Spinal cord injury and vascular function: evidence from diameter-matched vessels. J Appl Physiol, 130(3), 562-570.
  5. Trinity JD, Kwon OS, Broxterman RM, Gifford JR, Kithas AC, Hydren JR, Jarrett CL, Shields KL, Bisconti AV, Park SH, Craig JC, Nelson AD, Morgan DE, Jessop JE, Bledsoe AD, Richardson RS (2020). The role of the endothelium in the hyperemic response to passive leg movement: looking beyond nitric oxide. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 320(2), H668-H678.
  6. Ratchford SM, Clifton HL, La Salle DT, Broxterman RM, Lee JF, Ryan JJ, Hopkins PN, Wright JB, Trinity JD, Richardson RS, Wray DW (2020). Cardiovascular responses to rhythmic handgrip exercise in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. J Appl Physiol, 129(6), 1267-1276.
  7. Berg OK, Kwon OS, Hureau TJ, Clifton HL, Thurston TS, Le Fur Y, Jeong EK, Trinity JD, Richardson RS, Wang E, Layec G (2019). Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Adaptations to Maximal Strength Training in Older Adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 75(12), 2269-2277.
  8. Kithas AC, Broxterman RM, Trinity JD, Gifford JR, Kwon OS, Hydren JR, Nelson AD, Jessop JE, Bledsoe AD, Morgan DE, Richardson RS (2020). Nitric oxide synthase inhibition with N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine: Determining the window of effect in the human vasculature. Nitric Oxide, 104-105, 51-60.
  9. Ely MR, Ratchford SM, La Salle DT, Trinity JD, Wray DW, Halliwill JR (2020). Effect of histamine-receptor antagonism on leg blood flow during exercise. J Appl Physiol, 128(6), 1626-1634.
  10. Ives SJ, Layec G, Hart CR, Trinity JD, Gifford JR, Garten RS, Witman MAH, Sorensen JR, Richardson RS (2020). Passive leg movement in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: evidence of locomotor muscle vascular dysfunction. J Appl Physiol, 128(5), 1402-1411.
  11. Limberg JK, Casey DP, Trinity JD, Nicholson WT, Wray DW, Tschakovsky ME, Green DJ, Hellsten Y, Fadel PJ, Joyner MJ, Padilla J (2019). Assessment of resistance vessel function in human skeletal muscle: guidelines for experimental design, Doppler ultrasound, and pharmacology. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 318(2), H301-H325.
  12. Craig JC, Broxterman RM, La Salle DT, Cerbie J, Ratchford SM, Gifford JR, Bunsawat K, Nelson AD, Bledsoe AD, Morgan DE, Wray DW, Richardson RS, Trinity JD (2019). The role of endothelin A receptors in peripheral vascular control at rest and during exercise in patients with hypertension. J Physiol, 598(1), 71-84.
  13. Ratchford SM, Broxterman RM, La Salle DT, Kwon OS, Park SY, Hopkins PN, Richardson RS, Trinity JD (2019). Salt restriction lowers blood pressure at rest and during exercise without altering peripheral hemodynamics in hypertensive individuals. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 317(6), H1194-H1202.
  14. Broxterman RM, La Salle DT, Zhao J, Reese VR, Richardson RS, Trinity JD (2019). Influence of dietary inorganic nitrate on blood pressure and vascular function in hypertension: prospective implications for adjunctive treatment. J Appl Physiol, 127(4), 1085-1094.
  15. Trinity JD, Richardson RS (2019). Physiological Impact and Clinical Relevance of Passive Exercise/Movement. Sports Med, 49(9), 1365-1381.
  16. Broxterman RM, Witman MA, Trinity JD, Groot HJ, Rossman MJ, Park SY, Malenfant S, Gifford JR, Kwon OS, Park SH, Jarrett CL, Shields KL, Hydren JR, Bisconti AV, Owan T, Abraham A, Tandar A, Lui CY, Smith BR, Richardson RS (2019). Strong Relationship Between Vascular Function in the Coronary and Brachial Arteries. Hypertension, 74(1), 208-215.
  17. Hydren JR, Broxterman RM, Trinity JD, Gifford JR, Kwon OS, Kithas AC, Richardson RS (2019). Delineating the age-related attenuation of vascular function: Evidence supporting the efficacy of the single passive leg movement as a screening tool. J Appl Physiol (1985), 126(6), 1525-1532.