Joel D. Trinity, PhD

Research Interests

  • Cardiovascular Physiology
  • Exercise and Aging
  • Hypertension
  • Blood Flow
  • Nitric Oxide
  • Endothelium, Vascular


  • English

Academic Information

  • Departments: Internal Medicine - Research Associate Professor, Nutrition and Integrative Physiology - Adjunct Associate Professor
  • Divisions: Geriatrics

Academic Office Information

  • 512-689-2187
  • VA - Building #2
    500 S Foothill Dr, Room: 1D29A
    Salt Lake City, UT 84148

Academic Bio

Dr. Trinity is an Associate Professor in the Department of Internal Medicine and Adjunct Assistant Professor in the Department of Nutrition and Integrative Physiology. Dr. Trinity joined the UVRL in 2009 after completing his doctoral training at The University of Texas at Austin. Utilizing an integrative approach that combines in-vivo and in-vitro techniques Dr. Trinity's research examines the on the impact of age and disease, specifically hypertension, on vascular function and blood flow regulation.

Research Statement

Current research interests include an integrative approach to the study of aging and cardiovascular function in health and disease. I am specifically focused on the complex interactions of neural control, oxidative stress, and vascular function in diseased populations including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), heart failure, and hypertension. My graduate training focused on human performance and my dissertation work used a systematic approach to study whole body physiology focusing on peripheral and central cardiovascular performance during submaximal and maximal exercise. This research included studies investigating the independent and combined effects of core temperature and skin temperature on cardiovascular performance during exercise. Other interests include how the body balances peripheral (skin and muscle) and central (heart) hemodynamics during intense exercise, primarily during fatigue. Previous research has focused on physiological adaptations to tapering in highly trained swimmers.

Education History

Type School Degree
Fellowship George E Whalen VA Medical Center
Advanced Fellow
Postdoctoral Fellowship University of Utah
Postdoctoral Fellow
Doctoral Training The University of Texas at
Exercise Physiology
Graduate Training The University of Texas at Austin
Undergraduate Occidental College
Undergraduate The University of California Santa Cruz

Selected Publications

Journal Article

  1. Ely MR, Ratchford SM, La Salle DT, Trinity JD, Wray DW, Halliwill JR (2020). Effect of histamine-receptor antagonism on leg blood flow during exercise. J Appl Physiol, 128(6), 1626-1634.
  2. Ives SJ, Layec G, Hart CR, Trinity JD, Gifford JR, Garten RS, Witman MAH, Sorensen JR, Richardson RS (2020). Passive leg movement in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: evidence of locomotor muscle vascular dysfunction. J Appl Physiol, 128(5), 1402-1411.
  3. Berg OK, Kwon OS, Hureau TJ, Clifton HL, Thurston TS, Le Fur Y, Jeong EK, Trinity JD, Richardson RS, Wang E, Layec G (2020). Skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptations to maximal strength training in older adults. (Epub ahead of print) J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci.
  4. Limberg JK, Casey DP, Trinity JD, Nicholson WT, Wray DW, Tschakovsky ME, Green DJ, Hellsten Y, Fadel PJ, Joyner MJ, Padilla J (2019). Assessment of resistance vessel function in human skeletal muscle: guidelines for experimental design, Doppler ultrasound, and pharmacology. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 318(2), H301-H325.
  5. Craig JC, Broxterman RM, La Salle DT, Cerbie J, Ratchford SM, Gifford JR, Bunsawat K, Nelson AD, Bledsoe AD, Morgan DE, Wray DW, Richardson RS, Trinity JD (2019). The role of endothelin A receptors in peripheral vascular control at rest and during exercise in patients with hypertension. J Physiol, 598(1), 71-84.
  6. Ratchford SM, Broxterman RM, La Salle DT, Kwon OS, Park SY, Hopkins PN, Richardson RS, Trinity JD (2019). Salt restriction lowers blood pressure at rest and during exercise without altering peripheral hemodynamics in hypertensive individuals. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 317(6), H1194-H1202.
  7. Broxterman RM, La Salle DT, Zhao J, Reese VR, Richardson RS, Trinity JD (2019). Influence of dietary inorganic nitrate on blood pressure and vascular function in hypertension: prospective implications for adjunctive treatment. J Appl Physiol, 127(4), 1085-1094.
  8. Trinity JD, Richardson RS (2020). Physiological Impact and Clinical Relevance of Passive Exercise/Movement. Sports Med, 49(9), 1365-1381.
  9. Broxterman RM, Witman MA, Trinity JD, Groot HJ, Rossman MJ, Park SY, Malenfant S, Gifford JR, Kwon OS, Park SH, Jarrett CL, Shields KL, Hydren JR, Bisconti AV, Owan T, Abraham A, Tandar A, Lui CY, Smith BR, Richardson RS (2019). Strong Relationship Between Vascular Function in the Coronary and Brachial Arteries. Hypertension, 74(1), 208-215.
  10. Hydren JR, Broxterman RM, Trinity JD, Gifford JR, Kwon OS, Kithas AC, Richardson RS (2019). Delineating the age-related attenuation of vascular function: Evidence supporting the efficacy of the single passive leg movement as a screening tool. J Appl Physiol (1985), 126(6), 1525-1532.