Joel D. Trinity, PhD

Research Interests

  • Cardiovascular Physiology
  • Exercise and Aging
  • Hypertension
  • Blood Flow
  • Nitric Oxide
  • Endothelium, Vascular


  • English

Academic Information

  • Departments: Internal Medicine - Research Assistant Professor, Nutrition and Integrative Physiology - Adjunct Associate Professor
  • Divisions: Geriatrics

Academic Office Information

  • 512-689-2187
  • VA - Building #2
    500 S Foothill Dr, Room: 1D29A
    Salt Lake City, UT 84148

Academic Bio

Dr. Trinity is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Internal Medicine and Adjunct Assistant Professor in the Department of Nutrition and Integrative Physiology. Dr. Trinity joined the UVRL in 2009 after completing his doctoral training at The University of Texas at Austin. Utilizing an integrative approach that combines in-vivo and in-vitro techniques Dr. Trinity's research examines the on the impact of age and disease, specifically hypertension, on vascular function and blood flow regulation.

Research Statement

Current research interests include an integrative approach to the study of aging and cardiovascular function in health and disease. I am specifically focused on the complex interactions of neural control, oxidative stress, and vascular function in diseased populations including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), heart failure, and hypertension. My graduate training focused on human performance and my dissertation work used a systematic approach to study whole body physiology focusing on peripheral and central cardiovascular performance during submaximal and maximal exercise. This research included studies investigating the independent and combined effects of core temperature and skin temperature on cardiovascular performance during exercise. Other interests include how the body balances peripheral (skin and muscle) and central (heart) hemodynamics during intense exercise, primarily during fatigue. Previous research has focused on physiological adaptations to tapering in highly trained swimmers.

Education History

Type School Degree
Fellowship George E Whalen VA Medical Center
Advanced Fellow
Postdoctoral Fellowship University of Utah
Postdoctoral Fellow
Doctoral Training The University of Texas at
Exercise Physiology
Graduate Training The University of Texas at Austin
Undergraduate Occidental College
Undergraduate The University of California Santa Cruz

Selected Publications

Journal Article

  1. Layec G, Trinity JD, Hart CR, Le Fur Y, Zhao J, Reese V, Jeong EK, Richardson RS (2018). Impaired muscle efficiency but preserved peripheral hemodynamics and mitochondrial function with advancing age: Evidence from exercise in the young, old, and oldest-old.LID - 10.1093/gerona/gly050 [doi]. (Epub ahead of print) J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci.
  2. Corey R Hart, Gwenael Layec, Joel D Trinity, Oh Sung Kwon, Jia Zhao, Van Reese, Jayson R Gifford, and Russell S Richardson (3/31/2018). Increased skeletal muscle mitochondrial free radical production in peripheral arterial disease despite preserved mitochondrial respiratory capacity. Exp Physiol.
  3. Jayson R Gifford, Joel D Trinity, Oh Sung Kwon, Gwenael Layec, Ryan S Garten, Song Y Park, Ashley D Nelson, Russell S Richardson (2017). Altered Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Phenotype in COPD: Disease versus Disuse. J Appl Physiol.
  4. Joel D Trinity, Gwenael Layec, Corey R Hart, and Russell S Richardson (11/14/2017). The Sex-Specific Impact of Aging on the Blood Pressure Response to Exercise. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol.
  5. Gwenael Layec, Corey R Hart, Joel D Trinity, Oh Sung Kwon, Matthew J Rossman, Ryan Broxterman, Yann Le Fur, Eun-Kee Jeong, and Russell S Richardson (2017). Oxygen delivery and the restoration of the muscle energetic balance following exercise: Implications for delayed muscle recovery in patients with COPD. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 313(1), E94-E104.
  6. Venturelli M, Layec G, Trinity J, Hart CR, Broxterman RM, Richardson RS (2017). Single passive leg movement-induced hyperemia: a simple vascular function assessment without a chronotropic response. J Appl Physiol (1985), 122(1), 28-37.
  7. Gwenael Layec, Joel D Trinity, Corey R Hart, Yann Le Fur, Jacob R Sorensen, Eun-Kee Jeong, Russell S Richardson (2016). Evidence of a metabolic reserve in the skeletal muscle of elderly people. Aging, 9(1), 52-67.
  8. Park SY, Trinity JD, Gifford JR, Diakos NA, McCreath L, Drakos S, Richardson RS (2016). Mitochondrial function in heart failure: The impact of ischemic and non-ischemic etiology. Int J Cardiol, 220, 711-7.
  9. Layec G, Gifford JR, Trinity JD, Hart CR, Garten RS, Park SY, Le Fur Y, Jeong EK, Richardson RS (2016). Accuracy and precision of quantitative 31P-MRS measurements of human skeletal muscle mitochondrial function. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 311(2), E358-66.
  10. Trinity JD, Barrett-OKeefe Z, Ives SJ, Morgan G, Rossman MJ, Donato AJ, Runnels S, Morgan DE, Gmelch BS, Bledsoe AD, Richardson RS, Wray DW (2016). Endogenous endothelin-1 and femoral artery shear rate: impact of age and implications for atherosclerosis. J Hypertens, 34(2), 266-73.


  1. Trinity JD, Broxterman RM, Richardson RS (2016). Regulation of exercise blood flow: Role of free radicals. [Review]. Free Radic Biol Med, 98, 90-102.


  1. Trinity J (2017). Something is Definitely Better than Nothing: Simple Strategies to Prevent Vascular Dysfunction. Clin Sci (Lond), 131(11), 1055-1058.