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Adam M. Dubis

Adam M. Dubis, PhD

Academic Information

Departments Primary - Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences

Education History

Postdoctoral Fellowship Medical College of Wisconsin
Postdoctoral Fellow
Duke Eye Center
Postdoctoral Fellow
Fellowship National University of Ireland Galway
Predoctoral Fellow
Medical College of Wisconsin
Undergraduate Carthage College

Selected Publications

Journal Article

  1. Toledo-Corts S, Dubis AM, Gonzlez FA, Mller H (2023). Deep Density Estimation for Cone Counting and Diagnosis of Genetic Eye Diseases From Adaptive Optics Scanning Light Ophthalmoscope Images. Transl Vis Sci Technol, 12(11), 25. (Read full article)
  2. McIlwaine G, Csincsik L, Coey R, Wang L, Fitzgerald D, Moffat J, Dubis AM, McDonnell G, Hughes S, Peto T, Lengyel I (2023). Reduced Cone Density Is Associated with Multiple Sclerosis. Ophthalmol Sci, 3(3), 100308. (Read full article)
  3. Gutfleisch M, Ester O, Aydin S, Quassowski M, Spital G, Lommatzsch A, Rothaus K, Dubis AM, Pauleikhoff D (2022). Clinically applicable deep learning-based decision aids for treatment of neovascular AMD. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol, 260(7), 2217-2230. (Read full article)
  4. Jackson DJ, Dubis AM, Moosajee M (2022). The Natural History of CNGB1-Related Retinopathy: A Longitudinal Phenotypic Analysis. Int J Mol Sci, 23(12). (Read full article)
  5. Gill JS, Theofylaktopoulos V, Mitsios A, Houston S, Hagag AM, Dubis AM, Moosajee M (2022). Investigating Biomarkers for USH2A Retinopathy Using Multimodal Retinal Imaging. Int J Mol Sci, 23(8). (Read full article)
  6. Hanumunthadu D, Keane PA, Balaskas K, Dubis AM, Kalitzeos A, Michaelides M, Patel PJ (2021). Agreement Between Spectral-Domain and Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Retinal Thickness Measurements in Macular and Retinal Disease. Ophthalmol Ther, 10(4), 913-922. (Read full article)
  7. Jolly JK, Simunovic MP, Dubis AM, Josan AS, Robson AG, Bellini MP, Bloch E, Georgiadis O, da Cruz L, Bridge H, MacLaren RE (2021). Structural and Functional Characteristics of Color Vision Changes in Choroideremia. Front Neurosci, 15, 729807. (Read full article)
  8. Hagag AM, Mitsios A, Narayan A, Abbouda A, Webster AR, Dubis AM, Moosajee M (2020). Prospective deep phenotyping of choroideremia patients using multimodal structure-function approaches. Eye (Lond), 35(3), 838-852. (Read full article)
  9. Dubis AM, Lim WS, Jolly JK, Toms M, MacLaren RE, Webster AR, Moosajee M (2021). Longitudinal Study to Assess the Quantitative Use of Fundus Autofluorescence for Monitoring Disease Progression in Choroideremia. J Clin Med, 10(2). (Read full article)
  10. Gopalakrishnan S, Mehrvar S, Maleki S, Schmitt H, Summerfelt P, Dubis AM, Abroe B, Connor TB Jr, Carroll J, Huddleston W, Ranji M, Eells JT (2020). Photobiomodulation preserves mitochondrial redox state and is retinoprotective in a rodent model of retinitis pigmentosa. Sci Rep, 10(1), 20382. (Read full article)
  11. Nunez do Rio JM, Sen P, Rasheed R, Bagchi A, Nicholson L, Dubis AM, Bergeles C, Sivaprasad S (2020). Deep Learning-Based Segmentation and Quantification of Retinal Capillary Non-Perfusion on Ultra-Wide-Field Retinal Fluorescein Angiography. J Clin Med, 9(8). (Read full article)
  12. Toms M, Dubis AM, de Vrieze E, Tracey-White D, Mitsios A, Hayes M, Broekman S, Baxendale S, Utoomprurkporn N, Bamiou D, Bitner-Glindzicz M, Webster AR, Van Wijk E, Moosajee M (2019). Clinical and preclinical therapeutic outcome metrics for USH2A-related disease. Hum Mol Genet, 29(11), 1882-1899. (Read full article)
  13. Sarkar H, Dubis AM, Downes S, Moosajee M (2020). Novel Heterozygous Deletion in Retinol Dehydrogenase 12 (RDH12) Causes Familial Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa. Front Genet, 11, 335. (Read full article)
  14. Hagag AM, Mitsios A, Gill JS, Nunez Do Rio JM, Theofylaktopoulos V, Houston S, Webster AR, Dubis AM, Moosajee M (2019). Characterisation of microvascular abnormalities using OCT angiography in patients with biallelic variants in USH2A and MYO7A. Br J Ophthalmol, 104(4), 480-486. (Read full article)
  15. Toms M, Dubis AM, Lim WS, Webster AR, Gorin MB, Moosajee M (2019). Missense variants in the conserved transmembrane M2 protein domain of KCNJ13 associated with retinovascular changes in humans and zebrafish. Exp Eye Res, 189, 107852. (Read full article)
  16. Pauleikhoff D, Bonelli R, Dubis AM, Gunnemann F, Rothaus K, Charbel Issa P, Heeren TF, Peto T, Clemons TE, Chew EY, Bird AC, Sallo FB, MacTel Study Group (2019). Progression characteristics of ellipsoid zone loss in macular telangiectasia type 2. Acta Ophthalmol, 97(7), e998-e1005. (Read full article)
  17. Daniel MC, Dubis AM, MacPhee B, Ibanez P, Adams G, Brookes J, Papadopoulos M, Khaw PT, Theodorou M, Dahlmann-Noor AH (2019). Optical Coherence Tomography Findings After Childhood Lensectomy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 60(13), 4388-4396. (Read full article)
  18. Lamin A, Dubis AM, Sivaprasad S (2019). Changes in macular drusen parameters preceding the development of neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Eye (Lond), 33(6), 910-916. (Read full article)
  19. Sarkar H, Mitsios A, Smart M, Skinner J, Welch AA, Kalatzis V, Coffey PJ, Dubis AM, Webster AR, Moosajee M (2018). Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay efficiency varies in choroideremia providing a target to boost small molecule therapeutics. Hum Mol Genet, 28(11), 1865-1871. (Read full article)
  20. Toms M, Burgoyne T, Tracey-White D, Richardson R, Dubis AM, Webster AR, Futter C, Moosajee M (2019). Phagosomal and mitochondrial alterations in RPE may contribute to KCNJ13 retinopathy. Sci Rep, 9(1), 3793. (Read full article)
  21. Lamin A, Oakley JD, Dubis AM, Russakoff DB, Sivaprasad S (2018). Changes in volume of various retinal layers over time in early and intermediate age-related macular degeneration. Eye (Lond), 33(3), 428-434. (Read full article)
  22. Daniel MC, Dubis AM, Theodorou M, Quartilho A, Adams G, Brookes J, Papadopoulos M, Khaw PT, Dahlmann-Noor AH (2018). Childhood Lensectomy Is Associated with Static and Dynamic Reduction in Schlemm Canal Size: A Biomechanical Hypothesis of Glaucoma after Lensectomy. Ophthalmology, 126(2), 233-241. (Read full article)
  23. Russakoff DB, Lamin A, Oakley JD, Dubis AM, Sivaprasad S (2019). Deep Learning for Prediction of AMD Progression: A Pilot Study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 60(2), 712-722. (Read full article)
  24. Schwartz R, Bagchi A, Dubis A, Hykin P, Sivaprasad S (2017). Normative Data on Foveal Avascular Zone Dimensions in Four Macular Vascular Layers. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina, 49(8), 580-586. (Read full article)
  25. Daniel MC, Dubis AM, Quartilho A, Al-Hayouti H, Khaw SPT, Theodorou M, Dahlmann-Noor A (2018). Dynamic Changes in Schlemm Canal and Iridocorneal Angle Morphology During Accommodation in Children With Healthy Eyes: A Cross-Sectional Cohort Study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 59(8), 3497-3502. (Read full article)
  26. Abbouda A, Dubis AM, Webster AR, Moosajee M (2017). Identifying characteristic features of the retinal and choroidal vasculature in choroideremia using optical coherence tomography angiography. Eye (Lond), 32(3), 563-571. (Read full article)
  27. Sallo FB, Leung I, Zeimer M, Clemons TE, Dubis AM, Fruttiger M, Pauleikhoff D, Chew EY, Egan C, Peto T, Bird AC, MacTel Study Group (2017). ABNORMAL RETINAL REFLECTIVITY TO SHORT-WAVELENGTH LIGHT IN TYPE 2 IDIOPATHIC MACULAR TELANGIECTASIA. Retina, 38 Suppl 1(Suppl 1), S79-S88. (Read full article)
  28. Chopra R, Mulholland PJ, Dubis AM, Anderson RS, Keane PA (2017). Human Factor and Usability Testing of a Binocular Optical Coherence Tomography System. Transl Vis Sci Technol, 6(4), 16. (Read full article)
  29. Bergeles C, Dubis AM, Davidson B, Kasilian M, Kalitzeos A, Carroll J, Dubra A, Michaelides M, Ourselin S (2017). Unsupervised identification of cone photoreceptors in non-confocal adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope images. Biomed Opt Express, 8(6), 3081-3094. (Read full article)
  30. Toms M, Tracey-White D, Muhundhakumar D, Sprogyte L, Dubis AM, Moosajee M (2017). Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography: An In Vivo Imaging Protocol for Assessing Retinal Morphology in Adult Zebrafish. Zebrafish, 14(2), 118-125. (Read full article)
  31. Wilk MA, Dubis AM, Cooper RF, Summerfelt P, Dubra A, Carroll J (2016). Assessing the spatial relationship between fixation and foveal specializations. Vision Res, 132, 53-61. (Read full article)
  32. Athanasiou D, Aguila M, Opefi CA, South K, Bellingham J, Bevilacqua D, Munro PM, Kanuga N, Mackenzie FE, Dubis AM, Georgiadis A, Graca AB, Pearson RA, Ali RR, Sakami S, Palczewski K, Sherman MY, Reeves PJ, Cheetham ME (2016). Rescue of mutant rhodopsin traffic by metformin-induced AMPK activation accelerates photoreceptor degeneration. Hum Mol Genet, 26(2), 305-319. (Read full article)
  33. Patterson EJ, Wilk M, Langlo CS, Kasilian M, Ring M, Hufnagel RB, Dubis AM, Tee JJ, Kalitzeos A, Gardner JC, Ahmed ZM, Sisk RA, Larsen M, Sjoberg S, Connor TB, Dubra A, Neitz J, Hardcastle AJ, Neitz M, Michaelides M, Carroll J (2016). Cone Photoreceptor Structure in Patients With X-Linked Cone Dysfunction and Red-Green Color Vision Deficiency. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 57(8), 3853-63. (Read full article)
  34. Cooper RF, Sulai YN, Dubis AM, Chui TY, Rosen RB, Michaelides M, Dubra A, Carroll J (2016). Effects of Intraframe Distortion on Measures of Cone Mosaic Geometry from Adaptive Optics Scanning Light Ophthalmoscopy. Transl Vis Sci Technol, 5(1), 10. (Read full article)
  35. Abozaid MA, Langlo CS, Dubis AM, Michaelides M, Tarima S, Carroll J (2015). Reliability and Repeatability of Cone Density Measurements in Patients with Congenital Achromatopsia. Adv Exp Med Biol, 854, 277-83. (Read full article)
  36. Strauss RW, Dubis AM, Cooper RF, Ba-Abbad R, Moore AT, Webster AR, Dubra A, Carroll J, Michaelides M (2015). Retinal Architecture in ​RGS9- and ​R9AP-Associated Retinal Dysfunction (Bradyopsia). Am J Ophthalmol, 160(6), 1269-1275.e1. (Read full article)
  37. Lujan BJ, Roorda A, Croskrey JA, Dubis AM, Cooper RF, Bayabo JK, Duncan JL, Antony BJ, Carroll J (2015). DIRECTIONAL OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY PROVIDES ACCURATE OUTER NUCLEAR LAYER AND HENLE FIBER LAYER MEASUREMENTS. Retina, 35(8), 1511-20. (Read full article)
  38. McCafferty BK, Wilk MA, McAllister JT, Stepien KE, Dubis AM, Brilliant MH, Anderson JL, Carroll J, Summers CG (2014). Clinical Insights Into Foveal Morphology in Albinism. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus, 52(3), 167-72. (Read full article)
  39. Aboshiha J, Dubis AM, van der Spuy J, Nishiguchi KM, Cheeseman EW, Ayuso C, Ehrenberg M, Simonelli F, Bainbridge JW, Michaelides M (2015). Preserved outer retina in AIPL1 Leber's congenital amaurosis: implications for gene therapy. Ophthalmology, 122(4), 862-4. (Read full article)
  40. Collery RF, Veth KN, Dubis AM, Carroll J, Link BA (2014). Rapid, accurate, and non-invasive measurement of zebrafish axial length and other eye dimensions using SD-OCT allows longitudinal analysis of myopia and emmetropization. PLoS One, 9(10), e110699. (Read full article)
  41. Dubis AM, Cooper RF, Aboshiha J, Langlo CS, Sundaram V, Liu B, Collison F, Fishman GA, Moore AT, Webster AR, Dubra A, Carroll J, Michaelides M (2014). Genotype-dependent variability in residual cone structure in achromatopsia: toward developing metrics for assessing cone health. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 55(11), 7303-11. (Read full article)
  42. Aboshiha J, Luong V, Cowing J, Dubis AM, Bainbridge JW, Ali RR, Webster AR, Moore AT, Fitzke FW, Michaelides M (2014). Dark-adaptation functions in molecularly confirmed achromatopsia and the implications for assessment in retinal therapy trials. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 55(10), 6340-9. (Read full article)
  43. Aboshiha J, Dubis AM, Cowing J, Fahy RT, Sundaram V, Bainbridge JW, Ali RR, Dubra A, Nardini M, Webster AR, Moore AT, Rubin G, Carroll J, Michaelides M (2014). A prospective longitudinal study of retinal structure and function in achromatopsia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 55(9), 5733-43. (Read full article)
  44. Scoles D, Higgins BP, Cooper RF, Dubis AM, Summerfelt P, Weinberg DV, Kim JE, Stepien KE, Carroll J, Dubra A (2014). Microscopic inner retinal hyper-reflective phenotypes in retinal and neurologic disease. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 55(7), 4015-29. (Read full article)
  45. Wilk MA, McAllister JT, Cooper RF, Dubis AM, Patitucci TN, Summerfelt P, Anderson JL, Stepien KE, Costakos DM, Connor TB Jr, Wirostko WJ, Chiang PW, Dubra A, Curcio CA, Brilliant MH, Summers CG, Carroll J (2014). Relationship between foveal cone specialization and pit morphology in albinism. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 55(7), 4186-98. (Read full article)
  46. Dubis AM, Subramaniam CD, Godara P, Carroll J, Costakos DM (2013). Subclinical macular findings in infants screened for retinopathy of prematurity with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Ophthalmology, 120(8), 1665-71. (Read full article)
  47. Chiu SJ, Lokhnygina Y, Dubis AM, Dubra A, Carroll J, Izatt JA, Farsiu S (2013). Automatic cone photoreceptor segmentation using graph theory and dynamic programming. Biomed Opt Express, 4(6), 924-37. (Read full article)
  48. Vincent AL, Carroll J, Fishman GA, Sauer A, Sharp D, Summerfelt P, Williams V, Dubis AM, Kohl S, Wong F (2013). Rhodopsin F45L Allele Does Not Cause Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa in a Large Caucasian Family. Transl Vis Sci Technol, 2(2), 4. (Read full article)
  49. Carroll J, Dubra A, Gardner JC, Mizrahi-Meissonnier L, Cooper RF, Dubis AM, Nordgren R, Genead M, Connor TB Jr, Stepien KE, Sharon D, Hunt DM, Banin E, Hardcastle AJ, Moore AT, Williams DR, Fishman G, Neitz J, Neitz M, Michaelides M (2012). The effect of cone opsin mutations on retinal structure and the integrity of the photoreceptor mosaic. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 53(13), 8006-15. (Read full article)
  50. Godara P, Cooper RF, Sergouniotis PI, Diederichs MA, Streb MR, Genead MA, McAnany JJ, Webster AR, Moore AT, Dubis AM, Neitz M, Dubra A, Stone EM, Fishman GA, Han DP, Michaelides M, Carroll J (2012). Assessing retinal structure in complete congenital stationary night blindness and Oguchi disease. Am J Ophthalmol, 154(6), 987-1001.e1. (Read full article)
  51. Dubis AM, Costakos DM, Subramaniam CD, Godara P, Wirostko WJ, Carroll J, Provis JM (2012). Evaluation of normal human foveal development using optical coherence tomography and histologic examination. Arch Ophthalmol, 130(10), 1291-300. (Read full article)
  52. Garrioch R, Langlo C, Dubis AM, Cooper RF, Dubra A, Carroll J (2012). Repeatability of in vivo parafoveal cone density and spacing measurements. Optom Vis Sci, 89(5), 632-43. (Read full article)
  53. Dubis AM, Hansen BR, Cooper RF, Beringer J, Dubra A, Carroll J (2012). Relationship between the foveal avascular zone and foveal pit morphology. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 53(3), 1628-36. (Read full article)
  54. Wirostko WJ, Nordgren RN, Dubis AM (2012). Topographical Choroidal Thickness Change Following PDT for CSC: An OCT Case Report. J Ophthalmol, 2012, 347206. (Read full article)
  55. Genead MA, Fishman GA, Rha J, Dubis AM, Bonci DM, Dubra A, Stone EM, Neitz M, Carroll J (2011). Photoreceptor structure and function in patients with congenital achromatopsia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 52(10), 7298-308. (Read full article)
  56. Cooper RF, Dubis AM, Pavaskar A, Rha J, Dubra A, Carroll J (2011). Spatial and temporal variation of rod photoreceptor reflectance in the human retina. Biomed Opt Express, 2(9), 2577-89. (Read full article)
  57. Michaelides M, Rha J, Dees EW, Baraas RC, Wagner-Schuman ML, Mollon JD, Dubis AM, Andersen MK, Rosenberg T, Larsen M, Moore AT, Carroll J (2011). Integrity of the cone photoreceptor mosaic in oligocone trichromacy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 52(7), 4757-64. (Read full article)
  58. Dubra A, Sulai Y, Norris JL, Cooper RF, Dubis AM, Williams DR, Carroll J (2011). Noninvasive imaging of the human rod photoreceptor mosaic using a confocal adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope. Biomed Opt Express, 2(7), 1864-76. (Read full article)
  59. Wagner-Schuman M, Dubis AM, Nordgren RN, Lei Y, Odell D, Chiao H, Weh E, Fischer W, Sulai Y, Dubra A, Carroll J (2011). Race- and sex-related differences in retinal thickness and foveal pit morphology. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 52(1), 625-34. (Read full article)
  60. Odell D, Dubis AM, Lever JF, Stepien KE, Carroll J (2011). Assessing Errors Inherent in OCT-Derived Macular Thickness Maps. J Ophthalmol, 2011, 692574. (Read full article)
  61. Godara P, Dubis AM, Roorda A, Duncan JL, Carroll J (2010). Adaptive optics retinal imaging: emerging clinical applications. Optom Vis Sci, 87(12), 930-41. (Read full article)
  62. McAllister JT, Dubis AM, Tait DM, Ostler S, Rha J, Stepien KE, Summers CG, Carroll J (2010). Arrested development: high-resolution imaging of foveal morphology in albinism. Vision Res, 50(8), 810-7. (Read full article)
  63. Koozekanani DD, Weinberg DV, Dubis AM, Beringer J, Carroll J (2010). Hemorrhagic Retinoschisis in Shaken Baby Syndrome Imaged with Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging, 1-3. (Read full article)
  64. Tanna H, Dubis AM, Ayub N, Tait DM, Rha J, Stepien KE, Carroll J (2009). Retinal imaging using commercial broadband optical coherence tomography. Br J Ophthalmol, 94(3), 372-6. (Read full article)
  65. Rha J, Dubis AM, Wagner-Schuman M, Tait DM, Godara P, Schroeder B, Stepien K, Carroll J (2010). Spectral domain optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics: imaging photoreceptor layer morphology to interpret preclinical phenotypes. Adv Exp Med Biol, 664, 309-16. (Read full article)
  66. Dubis AM, McAllister JT, Carroll J (2009). Reconstructing foveal pit morphology from optical coherence tomography imaging. Br J Ophthalmol, 93(9), 1223-7. (Read full article)


  1. Sampson DM, Dubis AM, Chen FK, Zawadzki RJ, Sampson DD (2022). Towards standardizing retinal optical coherence tomography angiography: a review. [Review]. Light Sci Appl, 11(1), 63. (Read full article)
  2. Kleerekooper I, Houston S, Dubis AM, Trip SA, Petzold A (2020). Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCTA) in Multiple Sclerosis and Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder. [Review]. Front Neurol, 11, 604049. (Read full article)
  3. Gill JS, Moosajee M, Dubis AM (2019). Cellular imaging of inherited retinal diseases using adaptive optics. [Review]. Eye (Lond), 33(11), 1683-1698. (Read full article)
  4. Mitsios A, Dubis AM, Moosajee M (2018). Choroideremia: from genetic and clinical phenotyping to gene therapy and future treatments. [Review]. Ther Adv Ophthalmol, 10, 2515841418817490. (Read full article)
  5. Marcos S, Werner JS, Burns SA, Merigan WH, Artal P, Atchison DA, Hampson KM, Legras R, Lundstrom L, Yoon G, Carroll J, Choi SS, Doble N, Dubis AM, Dubra A, Elsner A, Jonnal R, Miller DT, Paques M, Smithson HE, Young LK, Zhang Y, Campbell M, Hunter J, Metha A, Palczewska G, Schallek J, Sincich LC (2017). Vision science and adaptive optics, the state of the field. [Review]. Vision Res, 132, 3-33. (Read full article)
  6. Aboshiha J, Dubis AM, Carroll J, Hardcastle AJ, Michaelides M (2015). The cone dysfunction syndromes. [Review]. Br J Ophthalmol, 100(1), 115-21. (Read full article)
  7. Provis JM, Dubis AM, Maddess T, Carroll J (2013). Adaptation of the central retina for high acuity vision: cones, the fovea and the avascular zone. [Review]. Prog Retin Eye Res, 35, 63-81. (Read full article)


  1. Elsner AE, Dubis AM, Morgan JIW, Sallo FB (2022). Editorial: The neural economy hypothesis: Changes with aging and disease to cones and other central nervous system visual neurons. Front Aging Neurosci, 14, 1054455. (Read full article)


  1. Han DP, Croskrey JA, Dubis AM, Schroeder B, Rha J, Carroll J (2012). Adaptive optics and spectral- domain optical coherence tomography of human photoreceptor structure after short-duration [corrected] pascal macular grid and panretinal laser photocoagulation. [Letter to the editor]. Arch Ophthalmol, 130(4), 518-21. (Read full article)
  2. Stepien KE, Martinez WM, Dubis AM, Cooper RF, Dubra A, Carroll J (2012). Subclinical photoreceptor disruption in response to severe head trauma. [Letter to the editor]. Arch Ophthalmol, 130(3), 400-2. (Read full article)
  3. Godara P, Rha J, Tait DM, McAllister J, Dubis A, Carroll J, Weinberg DV (2010). Unusual adaptive optics findings in a patient with bilateral maculopathy. [Letter to the editor]. Arch Ophthalmol, 128(2), 253-4. (Read full article)