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Arabella Young

Arabella Young, PhD

Languages spoken: English

Academic Information

Departments Primary - Pathology

Academic Office Information

Research Interests

  • Immune-Related Adverse Events
  • Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors
  • Autoimmunity
  • Tumor Microenvironment
  • Cancer Immunotherapy
  • Novel Immune Targets for Cancer Therapy

Education History

Fellowship University of California San Francisco
Postdoctoral Research Fellow
The University of Queensland
Undergraduate University of Tasmania

Selected Publications

Journal Article

  1. Fadlullah MZH, Lin CN, Coleman S, Young A, Naqash AR, Hu-Lieskovan S, Tan AC (2024). Exploring the Landscape of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor-Induced Adverse Events Through Big Data Mining of Pan-Cancer Clinical Trials. Oncologist. (Read full article)
  2. Silverstein J, Wright F, Wang M, Young A, Kim D, De Dios K, Brondfield S, Quandt Z (2022). Evaluating Survival After Hospitalization Due to Immune-Related Adverse Events From Checkpoint Inhibitors. Oncologist, 28(10), e950-e959. (Read full article)
  3. Quandt Z, Kim S, Villanueva-Meyer J, Coupe C, Young A, Kang JH, Yazdany J, Schmajuk G, Rush S, Ziv E, Perdigoto AL, Herold K, Lechner MG, Su MA, Tyrrell JB, Bluestone J, Anderson M, Masharani U (2023). Spectrum of Clinical Presentations, Imaging Findings, and HLA Types in Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor-Induced Hypophysitis. J Endocr Soc, 7(4), bvad012. (Read full article)
  4. VanDyke D, Iglesias M, Tomala J, Young A, Smith J, Perry JA, Gebara E, Cross AR, Cheung LS, Dykema AG, Orcutt-Jahns BT, Henclov T, Golias J, Balolong J, Tomasovic LM, Funda D, Meyer AS, Pardoll DM, Hester J, Issa F, Hunter CA, Anderson MS, Bluestone JA, Raimondi G, Spangler JB (2022). Engineered human cytokine/antibody fusion proteins expand regulatory T cells and confer autoimmune disease protection. Cell Rep, 41(3), 111478. (Read full article)
  5. Perdigoto AL, Deng S, Du KC, Kuchroo M, Burkhardt DB, Tong A, Israel G, Robert ME, Weisberg SP, Kirkiles-Smith N, Stamatouli AM, Kluger HM, Quandt Z, Young A, Yang ML, Mamula MJ, Pober JS, Anderson MS, Krishnaswamy S, Herold KC (2022). Immune cells and their inflammatory mediators modify β cells and cause checkpoint inhibitor-induced diabetes. JCI Insight, 7(17). (Read full article)
  6. Kang JH, Bluestone JA, Young A (2021). Predicting and Preventing Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Toxicity: Targeting Cytokines. Trends Immunol, 42(4), 293-311. (Read full article)
  7. Young A, Bluestone JA (2021). At the Heart of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor-Induced Immune Toxicity. Cancer Discov, 11(3), 537-539. (Read full article)
  8. Quandt Z, Young A, Perdigoto AL, Herold KC, Anderson MS (2020). Autoimmune Endocrinopathies: An Emerging Complication of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors. Annu Rev Med, 72, 313-330. (Read full article)
  9. Lee JC, Mehdizadeh S, Smith J, Young A, Mufazalov IA, Mowery CT, Daud A, Bluestone JA (2019). Regulatory T cell control of systemic immunity and immunotherapy response in liver metastasis. Sci Immunol, 5(52). (Read full article)
  10. Ngiow SF, Young A (2020). Re-education of the Tumor Microenvironment With Targeted Therapies and Immunotherapies. Front Immunol, 11, 1633. (Read full article)
  11. Quandt Z, Young A, Anderson M (2020). Immune checkpoint inhibitor diabetes mellitus: a novel form of autoimmune diabetes. Clin Exp Immunol, 200(2), 131-140. (Read full article)
  12. Sutton LP, Jeffreys SA, Phillips JL, Taberlay PC, Holloway AF, Ambrose M, Joo JE, Young A, Berry R, Skala M, Brettingham-Moore KH (2019). DNA methylation changes following DNA damage in prostate cancer cells. Epigenetics, 14(10), 989-1002. (Read full article)
  13. Young A, Quandt Z, Bluestone JA (2018). The Balancing Act between Cancer Immunity and Autoimmunity in Response to Immunotherapy. Cancer Immunol Res, 6(12), 1445-1452. (Read full article)
  14. Stamatouli AM, Quandt Z, Perdigoto AL, Clark PL, Kluger H, Weiss SA, Gettinger S, Sznol M, Young A, Rushakoff R, Lee J, Bluestone JA, Anderson M, Herold KC (2018). Collateral Damage: Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Induced With Checkpoint Inhibitors. Diabetes, 67(8), 1471-1480. (Read full article)
  15. Wang D, Quiros J, Mahuron K, Pai CC, Ranzani V, Young A, Silveria S, Harwin T, Abnousian A, Pagani M, Rosenblum MD, Van Gool F, Fong L, Bluestone JA, DuPage M (2018). Targeting EZH2 Reprograms Intratumoral Regulatory T Cells to Enhance Cancer Immunity. Cell Rep, 23(11), 3262-3274. (Read full article)
  16. Young A, Ngiow SF, Gao Y, Patch AM, Barkauskas DS, Messaoudene M, Lin G, Coudert JD, Stannard KA, Zitvogel L, Degli-Esposti MA, Vivier E, Waddell N, Linden J, Huntington ND, Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes F, Smyth MJ (2017). A2AR Adenosine Signaling Suppresses Natural Killer Cell Maturation in the Tumor Microenvironment. Cancer Res, 78(4), 1003-1016. (Read full article)
  17. Vijayan D, Young A, Teng MWL, Smyth MJ (2017). Targeting immunosuppressive adenosine in cancer. Nat Rev Cancer, 17(12), 709-724. (Read full article)
  18. Young A, Ngiow SF, Madore J, Reinhardt J, Landsberg J, Chitsazan A, Rautela J, Bald T, Barkauskas DS, Ahern E, Huntington ND, Schadendorf D, Long GV, Boyle GM, Hlzel M, Scolyer RA, Smyth MJ (2017). Targeting Adenosine in BRAF-Mutant Melanoma Reduces Tumor Growth and Metastasis. Cancer Res, 77(17), 4684-4696. (Read full article)
  19. Reinhardt J, Landsberg J, Schmid-Burgk JL, Ramis BB, Bald T, Glodde N, Lopez-Ramos D, Young A, Ngiow SF, Nettersheim D, Schorle H, Quast T, Kolanus W, Schadendorf D, Long GV, Madore J, Scolyer RA, Ribas A, Smyth MJ, Tumeh PC, Tting T, Hlzel M (2017). MAPK Signaling and Inflammation Link Melanoma Phenotype Switching to Induction of CD73 during Immunotherapy. Cancer Res, 77(17), 4697-4709. (Read full article)
  20. Gao Y, Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes F, Bald T, Ng SS, Young A, Ngiow SF, Rautela J, Straube J, Waddell N, Blake SJ, Yan J, Bartholin L, Lee JS, Vivier E, Takeda K, Messaoudene M, Zitvogel L, Teng MWL, Belz GT, Engwerda CR, Huntington ND, Nakamura K, Hlzel M, Smyth MJ (2017). Tumor immunoevasion by the conversion of effector NK cells into type 1 innate lymphoid cells. Nat Immunol, 18(9), 1004-1015. (Read full article)
  21. Casciello F, Al-Ejeh F, Kelly G, Brennan DJ, Ngiow SF, Young A, Stoll T, Windloch K, Hill MM, Smyth MJ, Gannon F, Lee JS (2017). G9a drives hypoxia-mediated gene repression for breast cancer cell survival and tumorigenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 114(27), 7077-7082. (Read full article)
  22. Liu J, Blake SJ, Yong MC, Harjunp H, Ngiow SF, Takeda K, Young A, ODonnell JS, Allen S, Smyth MJ, Teng MW (2016). Improved Efficacy of Neoadjuvant Compared to Adjuvant Immunotherapy to Eradicate Metastatic Disease. Cancer Discov, 6(12), 1382-1399. (Read full article)
  23. Ngiow SF, Young A, Blake SJ, Hill GR, Yagita H, Teng MW, Korman AJ, Smyth MJ (2016). Agonistic CD40 mAb-Driven IL12 Reverses Resistance to Anti-PD1 in a T-cell-Rich Tumor. Cancer Res, 76(21), 6266-6277. (Read full article)
  24. Young A, Ngiow SF, Barkauskas DS, Sult E, Hay C, Blake SJ, Huang Q, Liu J, Takeda K, Teng MWL, Sachsenmeier K, Smyth MJ (2016). Co-inhibition of CD73 and A2AR Adenosine Signaling Improves Anti-tumor Immune Responses. Cancer Cell, 30(3), 391-403. (Read full article)
  25. Mittal D, Sinha D, Barkauskas D, Young A, Kalimutho M, Stannard K, Caramia F, Haibe-Kains B, Stagg J, Khanna KK, Loi S, Smyth MJ (2016). Adenosine 2B Receptor Expression on Cancer Cells Promotes Metastasis. Cancer Res, 76(15), 4372-82. (Read full article)
  26. Qadi AA, Taberlay PC, Phillips JL, Young A, West AC, Brettingham-Moore KH, Dickinson JL, Holloway AF (2015). The Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Receptor Gene Is a Direct Target of RUNX1. J Cell Biochem, 117(1), 49-58. (Read full article)
  27. Ngiow SF, Young A, Jacquelot N, Yamazaki T, Enot D, Zitvogel L, Smyth MJ (2015). A Threshold Level of Intratumor CD8+ T-cell PD1 Expression Dictates Therapeutic Response to Anti-PD1. Cancer Res, 75(18), 3800-11. (Read full article)
  28. Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes F, Young A, Mittal D, Martinet L, Bruedigam C, Takeda K, Andoniou CE, Degli-Esposti MA, Hill GR, Smyth MJ (2015). NK cells require IL-28R for optimal in vivo activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 112(18), E2376-84. (Read full article)
  29. Young A, Mittal D, Stannard K, Yong M, Teng MW, Allard B, Stagg J, Smyth MJ (2014). Co-blockade of immune checkpoints and adenosine A2A receptor suppresses metastasis. Oncoimmunology, 3(10), e958952. (Read full article)
  30. Young A, Berry R, Holloway AF, Blackburn NB, Dickinson JL, Skala M, Phillips JL, Brettingham-Moore KH (2014). RNA-seq profiling of a radiation resistant and radiation sensitive prostate cancer cell line highlights opposing regulation of DNA repair and targets for radiosensitization. BMC Cancer, 14, 808. (Read full article)
  31. Young A, Mittal D, Stagg J, Smyth MJ (2014). Targeting cancer-derived adenosine: new therapeutic approaches. Cancer Discov, 4(8), 879-88. (Read full article)
  32. Mittal D, Young A, Stannard K, Yong M, Teng MW, Allard B, Stagg J, Smyth MJ (2014). Antimetastatic effects of blocking PD-1 and the adenosine A2A receptor. Cancer Res, 74(14), 3652-8. (Read full article)
  33. Poke FS, Upcher WR, Sprod OR, Young A, Brettingham-Moore KH, Holloway AF (2012). Depletion of c-Rel from cytokine gene promoters is required for chromatin reassembly and termination of gene responses to T cell activation. PLoS One, 7(7), e41734. (Read full article)


  1. Cina ML, Venegas J, Young A (2023). Stocking the toolbox-Using preclinical models to understand the development and treatment of immune checkpoint inhibitor-induced immune-related adverse events. [Review]. Immunol Rev, 318(1), 110-137. (Read full article)

Case Report

  1. Quandt Z, Coupe C, Anderson M, Uihlein A, Young A (2020). Breaking β Cell Tolerance After 100 Years of Life: Intratumoral Immunotherapy-Induced Diabetes Mellitus. J Endocr Soc, 4(10), bvaa114. (Read full article)


  1. Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes F, Young A, Smyth MJ (2015). IFN type III: in vivo NK cell response. Oncotarget, 6(24), 19960-1. (Read full article)