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Carol S. Lim

Carol S. Lim, PhD

Languages spoken: English

Academic Office Information

Research Interests

  • Mitochondrial Signaling
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Chronic Myeloid Leukemia
  • Gene Therapy
  • Peptides
  • Cancer Therapeutic Development
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • DNA/Gene Targeted Therapeutics
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Cellular Kinetics
  • Nuclear Import and Export

Carol Lim, PhD, is Interim Chair and Professor in the Departments of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Chemistry at the University of Utah and a member of the Cell Response and Regulation Program at Huntsman Cancer Institute.

Lim studies the development of novel cancer therapeutics (gene therapies, protein/peptide therapies). She focuses on developing new therapies for ovarian cancer and chronic myeloid leukemia. She also has interests in breast cancer and melanoma. She is a member of the Women's Disease Oriented Team.

Lim received a bachelor's degree from Purdue University, Indiana, and a PhD from the University of California, San Francisco. Her postdoctoral training was at the National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute.

Education History

Postdoctoral Fellowship NIH/National Cancer Institute, Laboratory of Receptor Biology and Gene Expression
Postdoctoral Fellow
University of California, San Francisco
Undergraduate Purdue University

Selected Publications

Journal Article

  1. Lu P, Redd Bowman KE, Brown SM, Joklik-Mcleod M, Vander Mause ER, Nguyen HTN, Lim CS (2019). p53-Bad: A Novel Tumor Suppressor/Proapoptotic Factor Hybrid Directed to the Mitochondria for Ovarian Cancer Gene Therapy. Mol Pharm, 16(8), 3386-3398. (Read full article)
  2. Lu P, Vander Mause ER, Redd Bowman KE, Brown SM, Ahne L, Lim CS (2019). Mitochondrially targeted p53 or DBD subdomain is superior to wild type p53 in ovarian cancer cells even with strong dominant negative mutant p53. J Ovarian Res, 12(1), 45. (Read full article)
  3. Bowman KR, Kim JH, Lim CS (2019). Narrowing the field: cancer-specific promoters for mitochondrially-targeted p53-BH3 fusion gene therapy in ovarian cancer. J Ovarian Res, 12(1), 38. (Read full article)
  4. Cornillie SP, Bruno BJ, Lim CS, Cheatham TE 3rd (2018). Computational Modeling of Stapled Peptides toward a Treatment Strategy for CML and Broader Implications in the Design of Lengthy Peptide Therapeutics. J Phys Chem B, 122(14), 3864-3875. (Read full article)
  5. Woessner DW, Eiring AM, Bruno BJ, Zabriskie MS, Reynolds KR, Miller GD, OHare T, Deininger MW, Lim CS (2015). A coiled-coil mimetic intercepts BCR-ABL1 dimerization in native and kinase-mutant chronic myeloid leukemia. Leukemia, 29(8), 1668-75. (Read full article)
  6. Bruno BJ, Lim CS (2015). Inhibition of bcr-abl in human leukemic cells with a coiled-coil protein delivered by a leukemia-specific cell-penetrating Peptide. Mol Pharm, 12(5), 1412-21. (Read full article)
  7. Okal A, Matissek KJ, Matissek SJ, Price R, Salama ME, Janat-Amsbury MM, Lim CS (2014). Re-engineered p53 activates apoptosis in vivo and causes primary tumor regression in a dominant negative breast cancer xenograft model. Gene Ther, 21(10), 903-12. (Read full article)
  8. Matissek KJ, Okal A, Mossalam M, Lim CS (2014). Delivery of a monomeric p53 subdomain with mitochondrial targeting signals from pro-apoptotic Bak or Bax. Pharm Res, 31(9), 2503-15. (Read full article)
  9. Okal A, Cornillie S, Matissek SJ, Matissek KJ, Cheatham TE 3rd, Lim CS (2014). Re-engineered p53 chimera with enhanced homo-oligomerization that maintains tumor suppressor activity. Mol Pharm, 11(7), 2442-52. (Read full article)
  10. Matissek KJ, Mossalam M, Okal A, Lim CS (2013). The DNA binding domain of p53 is sufficient to trigger a potent apoptotic response at the mitochondria. Mol Pharm, 10(10), 3592-602. (Read full article)
  11. Okal A, Mossalam M, Matissek KJ, Dixon AS, Moos PJ, Lim CS (2013). A chimeric p53 evades mutant p53 transdominant inhibition in cancer cells. Mol Pharm, 10(10), 3922-33. (Read full article)
  12. Miller GD, Woessner DW, Sirch MJ, Lim CS (2013). Multidomain targeting of Bcr-Abl by disruption of oligomerization and tyrosine kinase inhibition: toward eradication of CML. Mol Pharm, 10(9), 3475-83. (Read full article)
  13. Reaz S, Mossalam M, Okal A, Lim CS (2013). A single mutant, A276S of p53, turns the switch to apoptosis. Mol Pharm, 10(4), 1350-9. (Read full article)
  14. Davis JR, Mossalam M, Lim CS (2013). Controlled access of p53 to the nucleus regulates its proteasomal degradation by MDM2. Mol Pharm, 10(4), 1340-9. (Read full article)
  15. Woessner DW, Lim CS (2013). Disrupting BCR-ABL in combination with secondary leukemia-specific pathways in CML cells leads to enhanced apoptosis and decreased proliferation. Mol Pharm, 10(1), 270-7. (Read full article)
  16. Mossalam M, Soto J, Lim CS, Abel ED (2013). Solid phase synthesis of mitochondrial triphenylphosphonium-vitamin E metabolite using a lysine linker for reversal of oxidative stress. PLoS One, 8(1), e53272. (Read full article)
  17. Davis JR, Mossalam M, Lim CS (2012). Utilizing the estrogen receptor ligand-binding domain for controlled protein translocation to the insoluble fraction. Pharm Res, 29(12), 3455-63. (Read full article)
  18. Constance JE, Woessner DW, Matissek KJ, Mossalam M, Lim CS (2012). Enhanced and selective killing of chronic myelogenous leukemia cells with an engineered BCR-ABL binding protein and imatinib. Mol Pharm, 9(11), 3318-29. (Read full article)
  19. Constance JE, Despres SD, Nishida A, Lim CS (2012). Selective targeting of c-Abl via a cryptic mitochondrial targeting signal activated by cellular redox status in leukemic and breast cancer cells. Pharm Res, 29(8), 2317-28. (Read full article)
  20. Mossalam M, Matissek KJ, Okal A, Constance JE, Lim CS (2012). Direct induction of apoptosis using an optimal mitochondrially targeted p53. Mol Pharm, 9(5), 1449-58. (Read full article)
  21. Dixon AS, Miller GD, Bruno BJ, Constance JE, Woessner DW, Fidler TP, Robertson JC, Cheatham TE 3rd, Lim CS (2012). Correction to "improved coiled-coil design enhances interaction with bcr-abl and induces apoptosis". Mol Pharm, 9(5), 1535. (Read full article)
  22. Dixon AS, Constance JE, Tanaka T, Rabbitts TH, Lim CS (2012). Changing the subcellular location of the oncoprotein Bcr-Abl using rationally designed capture motifs. Pharm Res, 29(4), 1098-109. (Read full article)
  23. Dixon AS, Miller GD, Bruno BJ, Constance JE, Woessner DW, Fidler TP, Robertson JC, Cheatham TE 3rd, Lim CS (2012). Improved coiled-coil design enhances interaction with Bcr-Abl and induces apoptosis. Mol Pharm, 9(1), 187-95. (Read full article)
  24. Dixon AS, Pendley SS, Bruno BJ, Woessner DW, Shimpi AA, Cheatham TE 3rd, Lim CS (2011). Disruption of Bcr-Abl coiled coil oligomerization by design. J Biol Chem, 286(31), 27751-60. (Read full article)
  25. Dixon AS, Lim CS (2010). The nuclear translocation assay for intracellular protein-protein interactions and its application to the Bcr coiled-coil domain. Biotechniques, 49(1), 519-24. (Read full article)
  26. Cadwallader AB, Rollins DE, Lim CS (2010). Effect of anabolic-androgenic steroids and glucocorticoids on the kinetics of hAR and hGR nucleocytoplasmic translocation. Mol Pharm, 7(3), 689-98. (Read full article)
  27. Dixon AS, Kakar M, Schneider KM, Constance JE, Paullin BC, Lim CS (2009). Controlling subcellular localization to alter function: Sending oncogenic Bcr-Abl to the nucleus causes apoptosis. J Control Release, 140(3), 245-9. (Read full article)
  28. Kakar M, Cadwallader AB, Davis JR, Lim CS (2007). Signal sequences for targeting of gene therapy products to subcellular compartments: the role of CRM1 in nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the protein switch. Pharm Res, 24(11), 2146-55. (Read full article)
  29. Kakar M, Davis JR, Kern SE, Lim CS (2007). Optimizing the protein switch: altering nuclear import and export signals, and ligand binding domain. J Control Release, 120(3), 220-32. (Read full article)
  30. Davis JR, Kakar M, Lim CS (2007). Controlling protein compartmentalization to overcome disease. Pharm Res, 24(1), 17-27. (Read full article)
  31. Kakar M, Kanwal C, Davis JR, Li H, Lim CS (2006). Geldanamycin, an inhibitor of Hsp90, blocks cytoplasmic retention of progesterone receptors and glucocorticoid receptors via their respective ligand binding domains. AAPS J, 8(4), E718-28. (Read full article)
  32. Li H, Fidler ML, Lim CS (2005). Effect of initial subcellular localization of progesterone receptor on import kinetics and transcriptional activity. Mol Pharm, 2(6), 509-18. (Read full article)
  33. Kanwal C, Mu S, Kern SE, Lim CS (2004). Bidirectional on/off switch for controlled targeting of proteins to subcellular compartments. J Control Release, 98(3), 379-93. (Read full article)
  34. Li H, Yan G, Kern SE, Lim CS (2003). Correlation among agonist dose, rate of import, and transcriptional activity of liganded progesterone receptor B isoform in living cells. Pharm Res, 20(10), 1574-80. (Read full article)
  35. Kanwal C, Li H, Lim CS (2002). Model system to study classical nuclear export signals. AAPS PharmSci, 4(3), E18. (Read full article)
  36. Baumann CT, Ma H, Wolford R, Reyes JC, Maruvada P, Lim C, Yen PM, Stallcup MR, Hager GL (2001). The glucocorticoid receptor interacting protein 1 (GRIP1) localizes in discrete nuclear foci that associate with ND10 bodies and are enriched in components of the 26S proteasome. Mol Endocrinol, 15(4), 485-500. (Read full article)
  37. Lim CS, Baumann CT, Htun H, Xian W, Irie M, Smith CL, Hager GL (1999). Differential localization and activity of the A- and B-forms of the human progesterone receptor using green fluorescent protein chimeras. Mol Endocrinol, 13(3), 366-75. (Read full article)
  38. Baumann CT, Lim CS, Hager GL (1998). Simultaneous visualization of the yellow and green forms of the green fluorescent protein in living cells. J Histochem Cytochem, 46(9), 1073-6. (Read full article)
  39. Lim CS, Jabrane-Ferrat N, Fontes JD, Okamoto H, Garovoy MR, Peterlin BM, Hunt CA (1997). Sequence-independent inhibition of RNA transcription by DNA dumbbells and other decoys. Nucleic Acids Res, 25(3), 575-81. (Read full article)
  40. Lim CS, Hunt CA (1997). Synthesis of DNA dumbbells: chemical vs. enzymatic ligation of self-complementary oligonucleotides. Nucleosides Nucleotides, 16(1-2), 41-51.
  41. Guy RH, Kalia YN, Lim CS, Nonato LB, Turner NG (1996). Drug smuggling- creative ways to cross biological barriers. Chem Br, 32(7), 42-45.
  42. Lim CS, Hunt CA (1994). Sequential staining of short oligonucleotides in polyacrylamide gels with ethidium bromide and methylene blue. Biotechniques, 17(4), 626, 628. (Read full article)


  1. Miller GD, Bruno BJ, Lim CS (2014). Resistant mutations in CML and Ph(+)ALL - role of ponatinib. [Review]. Biologics, 8, 243-54. (Read full article)
  2. Bruno BJ, Miller GD, Lim CS (2013). Basics and recent advances in peptide and protein drug delivery. [Review]. Ther Deliv, 4(11), 1443-67. (Read full article)
  3. Constance JE, Lim CS (2012). Targeting malignant mitochondria with therapeutic peptides. [Review]. Ther Deliv, 3(8), 961-79. (Read full article)
  4. Mossalam M, Dixon AS, Lim CS (2010). Controlling subcellular delivery to optimize therapeutic effect. [Review]. Ther Deliv, 1(1), 169-93. (Read full article)
  5. Hager GL, Lim CS, Elbi C, Baumann CT (2000). Trafficking of nuclear receptors in living cells. [Review]. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol, 74(5), 249-54. (Read full article)
  6. Baumann CT, Lim CS, Hager GL (1999). Intracellular localization and trafficking of steroid receptors. [Review]. Cell Biochem Biophys, 31(2), 119-27. (Read full article)


  1. Lim CS, Bruno BJ, Miller GD, and Dixon AS (2015). Peptide Inhibitors of Bcr-Abl Oligomerization. U.S. Patent No. PCT/US2015/022417. Washington, D.C.:U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
  2. Lim CS and Okal A (2014). Oligomerization Domain of p53 to Bypass the Dominant Negative Effect of Mutant p53. U.S. Patent No. PCT/US2015/014855. Washington, D.C.:U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
  3. Lim, C.S., Matissek, K.M., and Okal, A. (2014). Targeting p53 and its DNA Binding Domain. U.S. Patent No. PCT/US2015/014851. Washington, D.C.:U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
  4. Hunt CA, Lim CS, Garovoy M (2002). Polynucleotide decoys that inhibit MHC-II expression and uses thereof. U.S. Patent No. 6410721. Washington, D.C.:U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
  5. Hunt CA, Lim CS, Garovoy M (1999). Polynucleotide decoys that inhibit MHC-II expression and uses thereof. U.S. Patent No. 5859226. Washington, D.C.:U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.