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Joel D. Trinity

Joel D. Trinity, PhD

Languages spoken: English

Academic Information

Departments Primary - Internal Medicine , Adjunct - Physical Therapy & Athletic Training

Divisions: Geriatrics

Research Interests

  • Cardiovascular Physiology
  • Exercise and Aging
  • Hypertension
  • Blood Flow
  • Nitric Oxide
  • Endothelium, Vascular

Dr. Trinity is an Associate Professor in the Department of Internal Medicine and Adjunct Assistant Professor in the Department of Nutrition and Integrative Physiology. Dr. Trinity joined the UVRL in 2009 after completing his doctoral training at The University of Texas at Austin. Utilizing an integrative approach that combines in-vivo and in-vitro techniques Dr. Trinity's research examines the on the impact of age and disease, specifically hypertension, on vascular function and blood flow regulation.

Research Statement

Current research interests include an integrative approach to the study of aging and cardiovascular function in health and disease. I am specifically focused on the complex interactions of neural control, oxidative stress, and vascular function in diseased populations including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), heart failure, and hypertension. My graduate training focused on human performance and my dissertation work used a systematic approach to study whole body physiology focusing on peripheral and central cardiovascular performance during submaximal and maximal exercise. This research included studies investigating the independent and combined effects of core temperature and skin temperature on cardiovascular performance during exercise. Other interests include how the body balances peripheral (skin and muscle) and central (heart) hemodynamics during intense exercise, primarily during fatigue. Previous research has focused on physiological adaptations to tapering in highly trained swimmers.

Education History

Fellowship George E Whalen VA Medical Center
Advanced Fellow
University of Utah
Postdoctoral Fellow
Doctoral Training The University of Texas at Austin
The University of Texas at Austin
Undergraduate Occidental College
Undergraduate The University of California Santa Cruz

Selected Publications

Journal Article

  1. Ratchford SM, Broxterman RM, La Salle DT, Kwon OS, Hopkins PN, Richardson RS, Trinity JD (2023). Obesity does not alter vascular function and handgrip exercise hemodynamics in middle-aged patients with hypertension. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol, 326(1), R1-R9. (Read full article)
  2. Thaweethai T, Jolley SE, Karlson EW, Levitan EB, Levy B, McComsey GA, McCorkell L, Nadkarni GN, Parthasarathy S, Singh U, Walker TA, Selvaggi CA, Shinnick DJ, Schulte CCM, Atchley-Challenner R, Alba GA, Alicic R, Altman N, Anglin K, Argueta U, Ashktorab H, Baslet G, Bassett IV, Bateman L, Bedi B, Bhattacharyya S, Bind MA, Blomkalns AL, Bonilla H, Bush PA, Castro M, Chan J, Charney AW, Chen P, Chibnik LB, Chu HY, Clifton RG, Costantine MM, Cribbs SK, Davila Nieves SI, Deeks SG, Duven A, Emery IF, Erdmann N, Erlandson KM, Ernst KC, Farah-Abraham R, Farner CE, Feuerriegel EM, Fleurimont J, Fonseca V, Franko N, Gainer V, Gander JC, Gardner EM, Geng LN, Gibson KS, Go M, Goldman JD, Grebe H, Greenway FL, Habli M, Hafner J, Han JE, Hanson KA, Heath J, Hernandez C, Hess R, Hodder SL, Hoffman MK, Hoover SE, Huang B, Hughes BL, Jagannathan P, John J, Jordan MR, Katz SD, Kaufman ES, Kelly JD, Kelly SW, Kemp MM, Kirwan JP, Klein JD, Knox KS, Krishnan JA, Kumar A, Laiyemo AO, Lambert AA, Lanca M, Lee-Iannotti JK, Logarbo BP, Longo MT, Luciano CA, Lutrick K, Maley JH, Marathe JG, Marconi V, Marshall GD, Martin CF, Matusov Y, Mehari A, Mendez-Figueroa H, Mermelstein R, Metz TD, Morse R, Mosier J, Mouchati C, Mullington J, Murphy SN, Neuman RB, Nikolich JZ, Ofotokun I, Ojemakinde E, Palatnik A, Palomares K, Parimon T, Parry S, Patterson JE, Patterson TF, Patzer RE, Peluso MJ, Pemu P, Pettker CM, Plunkett BA, Pogreba-Brown K, Poppas A, Quigley JG, Reddy U, Reece R, Reeder H, Reeves WB, Reiman EM, Rischard F, Rosand J, Rouse DJ, Ruff A, Saade G, Sandoval GJ, Schlater SM, Shepherd F, Sherif ZA, Simhan H, Singer NG, Skupski DW, Sowles A, Sparks JA, Sukhera FI, Taylor BS, Teunis L, Thomas RJ, Thorp JM, Thuluvath P, Ticotsky A, Tita AT, Tuttle KR, Urdaneta AE, Valdivieso D, VanWagoner TM, Vasey A, Verduzco-Gutierrez M, Wallace ZS, Ward HD, Warren DE, Weiner SJ, Welch S, Whiteheart SW, Wiley Z, Wisnivesky JP, Yee LM, Zisis S, Horwitz LI, Foulkes AS, RECOVER Consortium (2023). Development of a Definition of Postacute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 Infection. JAMA, 329(22), 1934-1946. (Read full article)
  3. Bunsawat K, Clifton HL, Ratchford SM, Vranish JR, Alpenglow JK, Haykowsky MJ, Trinity JD, Ryan JJ, Fadel PJ, Wray DW (2023). Cardiovascular Responses to Static Handgrip Exercise and Post-Exercise Ischemia in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction. J Appl Physiol Respir Environ Exerc Physiol, 134(6), 1508-1519. (Read full article)
  4. Fermoyle CC, La Salle DT, Alpenglow JK, Craig JC, Jarrett CL, Broxterman RM, McKenzie AI, Morgan DE, Birgenheier NM, Wray DW, Richardson RS, Trinity JD (2023). Pharmacological modulation of adrenergic tone alters the vasodilatory response to passive leg movement in young but not in old adults. J Appl Physiol (1985), 134(5), 1124-1134. (Read full article)
  5. Craig JC, Hart CR, Layec G, Kwon OS, Richardson RS, Trinity JD (2022). Impaired hemodynamic response to exercise in patients with peripheral artery disease: evidence of a link to inflammation and oxidative stress. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol, 323(5), R710-R719. (Read full article)
  6. Christensen JC, Blackburn B, Browning B, Wilbur C, Trinity JD, Gililland JM, Pelt CE (2022). Patient-reported outcomes measurement information system physical function and knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score relationship on performance measures in people undergoing total knee arthroplasty. Disabil Rehabil, 1-9. (Read full article)
  7. Broxterman RM, La Salle DT, Zhao J, Reese VR, Kwon OS, Richardson RS, Trinity JD (2022). Dietary nitrate supplementation and small muscle mass exercise hemodynamics in patients with essential hypertension. J Appl Physiol (1985), 133(2), 506-516. (Read full article)
  8. Fermoyle CC, Broxterman RM, La Salle DT, Ratchford SM, Hopkins PN, Richardson RS, Trinity JD (2023). Persistent vascular dysfunction following an acute nonpharmacological reduction in blood pressure in hypertensive patients. J Hypertens, 40(6), 1115-1125. (Read full article)
  9. Cho JM, Park SK, Kwon OS, La Salle DT, Cerbie J, Fermoyle CC, Morgan D, Nelson A, Bledsoe A, Bharath LP, Tandar M, Kunapuli SP, Richardson RS, Anandh Babu PV, Mookherjee S, Kishore BK, Wang F, Yang T, Boudina S, Trinity JD, Symons JD (2022). Activating P2Y1 receptors improves function in arteries with repressed autophagy. Cardiovasc Res, 119(1), 252-267. (Read full article)
  10. McKenzie AI, Mahmassani ZS, Petrocelli JJ, de Hart NMMP, Fix DK, Ferrara PJ, LaStayo PC, Marcus RL, Rondina MT, Summers SA, Johnson JM, Trinity JD, Funai K, Drummond MJ (2022). Acute exposure to a clinical dose of metformin increases skeletal muscle mitochondrial H2O2 emission and production in healthy, older adults: A randomized controlled trial. Exp Gerontol, 163, 111804. (Read full article)
  11. Lewis MT, Blain GM, Hart CR, Layec G, Rossman MJ, Park SY, Trinity JD, Gifford JR, Sidhu SK, Weavil JC, Hureau TJ, Jessop JE, Bledsoe AD, Amann M, Richardson RS (2021). Acute high-intensity exercise and skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory function: role of metabolic perturbation. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol, 321(5), R687-R698. (Read full article)
  12. Trinity JD, Craig JC, Fermoyle CC, McKenzie AI, Lewis MT, Park SH, Rondina MT, Richardson RS (2021). Impact of presymptomatic COVID-19 on vascular and skeletal muscle function: a case study. J Appl Physiol (1985), 130(6), 1961-1970. (Read full article)
  13. Craig JC, Broxterman RM, Cerbie JF, La Salle DT, Roundy CS, Jarrett CL, Richardson RS, Trinity JD (2021). The dynamic adjustment of mean arterial pressure during exercise: a potential tool for discerning cardiovascular health status. J Appl Physiol (1985), 130(5), 1544-1554. (Read full article)
  14. Venturelli M, Amann M, Trinity JD, Ives SJ, Richardson RS (2020). Spinal cord injury and vascular function: evidence from diameter-matched vessels. J Appl Physiol (1985), 130(3), 562-570. (Read full article)
  15. Trinity JD, Kwon OS, Broxterman RM, Gifford JR, Kithas AC, Hydren JR, Jarrett CL, Shields KL, Bisconti AV, Park SH, Craig JC, Nelson AD, Morgan DE, Jessop JE, Bledsoe AD, Richardson RS (2020). The role of the endothelium in the hyperemic response to passive leg movement: looking beyond nitric oxide. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 320(2), H668-H678. (Read full article)
  16. Ratchford SM, Clifton HL, La Salle DT, Broxterman RM, Lee JF, Ryan JJ, Hopkins PN, Wright JB, Trinity JD, Richardson RS, Wray DW (2020). Cardiovascular responses to rhythmic handgrip exercise in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. J Appl Physiol (1985), 129(6), 1267-1276. (Read full article)
  17. Berg OK, Kwon OS, Hureau TJ, Clifton HL, Thurston TS, Le Fur Y, Jeong EK, Trinity JD, Richardson RS, Wang E, Layec G (2019). Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Adaptations to Maximal Strength Training in Older Adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 75(12), 2269-2277. (Read full article)
  18. Kithas AC, Broxterman RM, Trinity JD, Gifford JR, Kwon OS, Hydren JR, Nelson AD, Jessop JE, Bledsoe AD, Morgan DE, Richardson RS (2020). Nitric oxide synthase inhibition with N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine: Determining the window of effect in the human vasculature. Nitric Oxide, 104-105, 51-60. (Read full article)
  19. Ely MR, Ratchford SM, La Salle DT, Trinity JD, Wray DW, Halliwill JR (2020). Effect of histamine-receptor antagonism on leg blood flow during exercise. J Appl Physiol (1985), 128(6), 1626-1634. (Read full article)
  20. Ives SJ, Layec G, Hart CR, Trinity JD, Gifford JR, Garten RS, Witman MAH, Sorensen JR, Richardson RS (2020). Passive leg movement in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: evidence of locomotor muscle vascular dysfunction. J Appl Physiol (1985), 128(5), 1402-1411. (Read full article)
  21. Limberg JK, Casey DP, Trinity JD, Nicholson WT, Wray DW, Tschakovsky ME, Green DJ, Hellsten Y, Fadel PJ, Joyner MJ, Padilla J (2019). Assessment of resistance vessel function in human skeletal muscle: guidelines for experimental design, Doppler ultrasound, and pharmacology. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 318(2), H301-H325. (Read full article)
  22. Craig JC, Broxterman RM, La Salle DT, Cerbie J, Ratchford SM, Gifford JR, Bunsawat K, Nelson AD, Bledsoe AD, Morgan DE, Wray DW, Richardson RS, Trinity JD (2019). The role of endothelin A receptors in peripheral vascular control at rest and during exercise in patients with hypertension. J Physiol, 598(1), 71-84. (Read full article)
  23. Ratchford SM, Broxterman RM, La Salle DT, Kwon OS, Park SY, Hopkins PN, Richardson RS, Trinity JD (2019). Salt restriction lowers blood pressure at rest and during exercise without altering peripheral hemodynamics in hypertensive individuals. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 317(6), H1194-H1202. (Read full article)
  24. Broxterman RM, La Salle DT, Zhao J, Reese VR, Richardson RS, Trinity JD (2019). Influence of dietary inorganic nitrate on blood pressure and vascular function in hypertension: prospective implications for adjunctive treatment. J Appl Physiol (1985), 127(4), 1085-1094. (Read full article)
  25. Broxterman RM, Witman MA, Trinity JD, Groot HJ, Rossman MJ, Park SY, Malenfant S, Gifford JR, Kwon OS, Park SH, Jarrett CL, Shields KL, Hydren JR, Bisconti AV, Owan T, Abraham A, Tandar A, Lui CY, Smith BR, Richardson RS (2019). Strong Relationship Between Vascular Function in the Coronary and Brachial Arteries. Hypertension, 74(1), 208-215. (Read full article)
  26. Hydren JR, Broxterman RM, Trinity JD, Gifford JR, Kwon OS, Kithas AC, Richardson RS (2019). Delineating the age-related attenuation of vascular function: Evidence supporting the efficacy of the single passive leg movement as a screening tool. J Appl Physiol (1985), 126(6), 1525-1532. (Read full article)


  1. Trinity JD, Drummond MJ, Fermoyle CC, McKenzie AI, Supiano MA, Richardson RS (2022). Cardiovasomobility: An Integrative Understanding of how Disuse Impacts Cardiovascular and Skeletal Muscle Health. [Review]. J Appl Physiol (1985), 132(3), 835-861. (Read full article)


  1. Trinity JD, Drummond MJ, Fermoyle C, McKenzie AI, Supiano MA, Richardson RS (2022). Reply to Horn et al. [Letter to the editor]. J Appl Physiol (1985), 133(2), 322. (Read full article)