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Katharine S. Walter

Katharine S. Walter, PhD

Languages spoken: English, French, Portuguese

Academic Information

Departments Primary - Internal Medicine

Divisions: Epidemiology

Academic Office Information

Education History

Postdoctoral Fellowship Stanford University School of Medicine
Postdoctoral Fellow
Yale School of Public Health
Graduate Training Yale School of Public Health
Université Paul Sabatier
Undergraduate Harvard University

Selected Publications

Journal Article

  1. Verma R, Moreira FMF, do Prado Morais AO, Walter KS, Dos Santos PCP, Kim E, Soares TR, de Araujo RCP, da Silva BO, da Silva Santos A, Croda J, Andrews JR (2022). Detection of M. tuberculosis in the environment as a tool for identifying high-risk locations for tuberculosis transmission. Sci Total Environ, 156970.
  2. Walter KS, Dos Santos PCP, Gonalves TO, da Silva BO, da Silva Santos A, de Cssia Leite A, da Silva AM, Figueira Moreira FM, de Oliveira RD, Lemos EF, Cunha E, Liu YE, Ko AI, Colijn C, Cohen T, Mathema B, Croda J, Andrews JR (2022). The role of prisons in disseminating tuberculosis in Brazil: A genomic epidemiology study. Lancet Reg Health Am, 9.
  3. Holubar M, Subramanian A, Purington N, Hedlin H, Bunning B, Walter KS, Bonilla H, Boumis A, Chen M, Clinton K, Dewhurst L, Epstein C, Jagannathan P, Kaszynski RH, Panu L, Parsonnet J, Ponder EL, Quintero O, Sefton E, Singh U, Soberanis L, Truong H, Andrews JR, Desai M, Khosla C, Maldonado Y (2022). Favipiravir for treatment of outpatients with asymptomatic or uncomplicated COVID-19: a double-blind randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial. Clin Infect Dis.
  4. O Marr JM, Gonalves C, Arakaki-Sanchez D, Pelissari DM, Costa FD, Croda J, Walter KS, Andrews JR (2022). The effect of incarceration on TB treatment outcomes. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 26(3), 252-258.
  5. Verma R, Kim E, Degner N, Walter KS, Singh U, Andrews JR (2021). Variation in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Bioaerosol Production in Exhaled Breath. Open Forum Infect Dis, 9(1), ofab600.
  6. Liu YE, Lemos EF, Gonalves CCM, de Oliveira RD, Santos ADS, do Prado Morais AO, Croda MG, de Lourdes Delgado Alves M, Croda J, Walter KS, Andrews JR (2021). All-cause and cause-specific mortality during and following incarceration in Brazil: A retrospective cohort study. PLoS Med, 18(9), e1003789.
  7. Adams B, Walter KS, Diuk-Wasser MA (2021). Host Specialisation, Immune Cross-Reaction and the Composition of Communities of Co-circulating Borrelia Strains. Bull Math Biol, 83(6), 66.
  8. Cords O, Martinez L, Warren JL, OMarr JM, Walter KS, Cohen T, Zheng J, Ko AI, Croda J, Andrews JR (2021). Incidence and prevalence of tuberculosis in incarcerated populations: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Public Health, 6(5), e300-e308.
  9. Walter KS, Tatara MB, Esther da Silva K, Moreira FMF, Dos Santos PCP, de Melo Ferrari DD, Cunha EA, Andrews JR, Croda J (2021). Local and Travel-Associated Transmission of Tuberculosis at Central Western Border of Brazil, 2014-2017. Emerg Infect Dis, 27(3), 905-914.
  10. Walter KS, Colijn C, Cohen T, Mathema B, Liu Q, Bowers J, Engelthaler DM, Narechania A, Lemmer D, Croda J, Andrews JR (2020). Genomic variant-identification methods may alter Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission inferences. Microb Genom, 6(8).
  11. Martinez L, Verma R, Croda J, Horsburgh CR Jr, Walter KS, Degner N, Middelkoop K, Koch A, Hermans S, Warner DF, Wood R, Cobelens F, Andrews JR (2019). Detection, survival and infectious potential of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the environment: a review of the evidence and epidemiological implications. Eur Respir J, 53(6).
  12. Weiss BL, Maltz MA, Vigneron A, Wu Y, Walter KS, ONeill MB, Wang J, Aksoy S (2019). Colonization of the tsetse fly midgut with commensal Kosakonia cowanii Zambiae inhibits trypanosome infection establishment. PLoS Pathog, 15(2), e1007470.
  13. Mabud TS, de Lourdes Delgado Alves M, Ko AI, Basu S, Walter KS, Cohen T, Mathema B, Colijn C, Lemos E, Croda J, Andrews JR (2019). Evaluating strategies for control of tuberculosis in prisons and prevention of spillover into communities: An observational and modeling study from Brazil. PLoS Med, 16(1), e1002737.
  14. Walter KS, Carpi G, Caccone A, Diuk-Wasser MA (2017). Genomic insights into the ancient spread of Lyme disease across North America. Nat Ecol Evol, 1(10), 1569-1576.
  15. Carpi G, Walter KS, Mamoun CB, Krause PJ, Kitchen A, Lepore TJ, Dwivedi A, Cornillot E, Caccone A, Diuk-Wasser MA (2016). Babesia microti from humans and ticks hold a genomic signature of strong population structure in the United States. BMC Genomics, 17(1), 888.
  16. Walter KS, Carpi G, Evans BR, Caccone A, Diuk-Wasser MA (2016). Vectors as Epidemiological Sentinels: Patterns of Within-Tick Borrelia burgdorferi Diversity. PLoS Pathog, 12(7), e1005759.
  17. Walter KS, Pepin KM, Webb CT, Gaff HD, Krause PJ, Pitzer VE, Diuk-Wasser MA (2016). Invasion of two tick-borne diseases across New England: harnessing human surveillance data to capture underlying ecological invasion processes. Proc Biol Sci, 283(1832).
  18. Carpi G, Walter KS, Bent SJ, Hoen AG, Diuk-Wasser M, Caccone A (2015). Whole genome capture of vector-borne pathogens from mixed DNA samples: a case study of Borrelia burgdorferi. BMC Genomics, 16, 434.
  19. Walter KS, Brown JE, Powell JR (2014). Microhabitat partitioning of Aedes simpsoni (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol, 51(3), 596-604.
  20. Alter G, Rihn S, Walter K, Nolting A, Martin M, Rosenberg ES, Miller JS, Carrington M, Altfeld M (2009). HLA class I subtype-dependent expansion of KIR3DS1+ and KIR3DL1+ NK cells during acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J Virol, 83(13), 6798-805.


  1. Walter KS, Martinez L, Arakaki-Sanchez D, Sequera VG, Estigarribia Sanabria G, Cohen T, Ko AI, Garca-Basteiro AL, Rueda ZV, Lpez-Olarte RA, Espinal MA, Croda J, Andrews JR (2021). The escalating tuberculosis crisis in central and South American prisons. [Review]. Lancet, 397(10284), 1591-1596.
  2. Metcalf CJE, Walter KS, Wesolowski A, Buckee CO, Shevliakova E, Tatem AJ, Boos WR, Weinberger DM, Pitzer VE (2017). Identifying climate drivers of infectious disease dynamics: recent advances and challenges ahead. [Review]. Proc Biol Sci, 284(1860).


  1. Altamirano J, Govindarajan P, Blomkalns AL, Learn S, Robinson I, Chun LX, Shaikh NJ, Robinso ML, De Araujo MB, Walter KS, Andrews JR, Hogan C, Pinksy BA, Madonado Y (2021). Natural History of Shedding and Household Transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Using Intensive High-Resolution Sampling [Abstract]. 8(Suppl 1), S302-S302.


  1. Walter KS (2022). Let’s Build a City that Values Lives Over Handbags. Street Sheet.
  2. Walter KS (2022). Pandemic of the Oppressed. Boston Review.
  3. Walter KS (2020). California’s inaction on COVID-19 amounts to a death sentence for prisoners. San Francisco Examiner.
  4. Walter KS (2019). Ebola Outbreaks Are About Inequality. The New Republic.
  5. Walter KS (2017). What We Get Wrong About Lyme Disease. Nautilus Magazine, p. 53.
  6. Walter KS (2017). Central Park Mice Don’t Get Out Much. An interview with evolutionary biologist Jason Munshi-South. Nautilus Magazine, p. 51.
  7. Walter KS (2017). How to Hear Like a Champion Birder. Nautilus Magazine, p. 50.
  8. Walter KS (2017). How Aging Research Is Changing Our Lives: An interview with Eric Verdin, CEO of the Buck Institute for Research on Aging. Nautilus Magazine.
  9. Walter KS (2016). Will Viruses Save Us From Superbugs? Nautilus Magazine.
  10. Walter KS (2016). Climate change is speeding up the spread of Lyme disease. STAT.