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Lorise C. Gahring

Lorise C. Gahring, PhD

Languages spoken: English

Academic Information

Departments Emeritus - Internal Medicine

Divisions: Geriatrics

Academic Office Information

Dr. Gahring joined the faculty team of the Division of Geriatrics in 1993 and also holds an adjunct professorship in the Pathology Department, specializing in microbiology and immunology.

She is interested in how inflammation affects diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Multiple Sclerosis, Epilepsy or just normal aging. Her lab studies several aspects of neuroinflammation that involve how inflammatory cytokines interact with neurotransmitter receptors. During the course of a peripheral inflammatory event, cytokines are produced locally and upon release into the blood stream stimulate cells within the central nervous system (CNS) to produce more cytokines.

In most cases, inflammatory cytokines are produced transiently in the brain and have a positive effect on neuronal survival. Interleukin-1 ( a and b ), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF a ) can protect neurons against subsequent toxic challenges (including b -amyloid peptide, paraquat, and N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA)). Chronic stimulation of these inflammatory cytokines, however, can have deleterious effects on neuronal viability. Overexpression of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF is detected in neurological diseases.

Dr. Gahring's laboratory investigates the effects of inflammatory cytokines on neurons through measuring intracellular events induced by these proteins. We require proper immune and inflammatory responses to maintain a healthy status during microbial assault, but with age these same processes become dysregulated and can themselves contribute to the pathogenesis of many age-related diseases. In particular, the tight control of signaling among key mediators of the immune and inflammatory system, the inflammatory cytokines, become compromised. Dr. Gahring's lab studies several aspects of inflammation that involve alterations in inflammatory cytokine production and how these alterations impact on nicotinic receptors, which have anti-inflammatory properties. In the mouse model, we can determine the interplay between the cytokines and the nicotinic receptors to assess how maintenance of the balance between these systems can prevent several pathologies of the aged.

Education History

Postdoctoral Fellowship Research Institute of Scripps Clinic
Postdoctoral Fellow
Research Institute of Scripps Clinic
Postdoctoral Fellow
Doctoral Training University of Utah
California State University Fullerton
Undergraduate University of California

Selected Publications

Journal Article

  1. Gahring LC, Myers EJ, Dunn DM, Weiss RB, Rogers SW (2018). Lung Eosinophilia Induced by House Dust Mites or Ovalbumin is Modulated by Nicotinic Receptor Alpha 7 and Inhibited by Cigarette Smoke.LID - 10.1152/ajplung.00230.2018 [doi]. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol, 315(4), L553-L562.
  2. Gahring LC, Myers EJ, Dunn DM, Weiss RB, Rogers SW (2017). Lung epithelial response to cigarette smoke and modulation by the nicotinic alpha 7 receptor. PLoS One, 12(11), e0187773.
  3. Gahring LC, Myers EJ, Dunn DM, Weiss RB, Rogers SW (2017). Nicotinic alpha 7 receptor expression and modulation of the lung epithelial response to lipopolysaccharide. PLoS One, 12(4), e0175367.
  4. Rogers SW, Gahring LC (2015). Upregulation of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor alph4+beta2 through a Ligand-Independent PI3Kbeta Mechanism That Is Enhanced by TNFalpha and the Jak2/p38Mapk Pathways. PLoS One, 10(11), e0143319.
  5. Wee YS, Weis JJ, Gahring LC, Rogers SW, Weis JH (2015). Age-related onset of obesity corresponds with metabolic dysregulation and altered microglia morphology in mice deficient for Ifitm proteins. PLoS One, 10(4), e0123218.
  6. Enioutina EY, Myers EJ, Tvrdik P, Hoidal JR, Rogers SW, Gahring LC (2015). The nicotinic receptor Alpha7 impacts the mouse lung response to LPS through multiple mechanisms. PLoS One, 10(3), e0121128.
  7. Gahring LC, Myers E, Palumbos S, Rogers SW (2014). Nicotinic receptor Alpha7 expression during mouse adrenal gland development. PLoS One, 9(8), e103861.
  8. Gahring LC, Enioutina EY, Myers EJ, Spangrude GJ, Efimova OV, Kelley TW, Tvrdik P, Capecchi MR, Rogers SW (2013). Nicotinic receptor alpha7 expression identifies a novel hematopoietic progenitor lineage. PLoS One, 8(3), e57481.
  9. Rogers SW, Myers EJ, Gahring LC (2012). The expression of nicotinic receptor alpha7 during cochlear development. Brain Behav, 2(5), 628-39.
  10. Rogers SW, Tvrdik P, Capecchi MR, Gahring LC (2012). Prenatal ablation of nicotinic receptor alpha7 cell lineages produces lumbosacral spina bifida the severity of which is modified by choline and nicotine exposure. Am J Med Genet A, 158A(5), 1135-44.
  11. Rogers SW, Gahring LC (2012). Nicotinic receptor Alpha7 expression during tooth morphogenesis reveals functional pleiotropy. PLoS One, 7(5), e36467.
  12. Gahring LC, Rogers SW (2010). Nicotinic receptor subunit alpha5 modifies assembly, up-regulation, and response to pro-inflammatory cytokines. J Biol Chem, 285(34), 26049-57.
  13. Gahring LC, Vasquez-Opazo GA, Rogers SW (2010). Choline promotes nicotinic receptor alpha4 + beta2 up-regulation. J Biol Chem, 285(26), 19793-801.
  14. Gahring LC, Osborne AV, Reed M, Rogers SW (2010). Neuronal nicotinic alpha7 receptors modulate early neutrophil infiltration to sites of skin inflammation. J Neuroinflammation, 7(1), 38.
  15. Weiss RB, Baker TB, Cannon DS, von Niederhausern A, Dunn DM, Matsunami N, Singh NA, Baird L, Coon H, McMahon WM, Piper ME, Fiore MC, Scholand MB, Connett JE, Kanner RE, Gahring LC, Rogers SW, Hoidal JR, Leppert MF (2008). A candidate gene approach identifies the CHRNA5-A3-B4 region as a risk factor for age-dependent nicotine addiction. PLoS Genet, 4(7), e1000125.
  16. Gahring LC, Osborne-Hereford AV, Vasquez-Opazo GA, Rogers SW (2008). Tumor necrosis factor alpha enhances nicotinic receptor up-regulation via a p38MAPK-dependent pathway. J Biol Chem, 283(2), 693-9.
  17. Rogers SW, Weis JJ, Ma Y, Teuscher C, Gahring LC (2008). Mouse chromosome 11 harbors genetic determinants of hippocampal strain-specific nicotinic receptor expression. Hippocampus, 18(8), 750-7.
  18. Gahring LC, Rogers SW (2008). Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expression in the hippocampus of 27 mouse strains reveals novel inhibitory circuitry. Hippocampus, 18(8), 737-49.
  19. Osborne-Hereford AV, Rogers SW, Gahring LC (2008). Neuronal nicotinic alpha7 receptors modulate inflammatory cytokine production in the skin following ultraviolet radiation. J Neuroimmunol, 193(1-2), 130-9.
  20. Gahring LC, Days EL, Kaasch T, Gonzalez de Mendoza M, Owen L, Persiyanov K, Rogers SW (2005). Pro-inflammatory cytokines modify neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor assembly. J Neuroimmunol, 166(1-2), 88-101.
  21. Gahring LC, Persiyanov K, Rogers SW (2005). Mouse strain-specific changes in nicotinic receptor expression with age. Neurobiol Aging, 26(6), 973-80.
  22. Gahring LC, Persiyanov K, Days EL, Rogers SW (2004). Age-related loss of neuronal nicotinic receptor expression in the aging mouse hippocampus corresponds with cyclooxygenase-2 and PPARgamma expression and is altered by long-term NS398 administration. J Neurobiol, 62(4), 453-468.
  23. Gahring LC, Persiyanov K, Dunn D, Weiss R, Meyer EL, Rogers SW (2004). Mouse strain-specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expression by inhibitory interneurons and astrocytes in the dorsal hippocampus. J Comp Neurol, 468(3), 334-46.
  24. Gahring LC, Persiyanov K, Rogers SW (2004). Neuronal and astrocyte expression of nicotinic receptor subunit beta4 in the adult mouse brain. J Comp Neurol, 468(3), 322-33.
  25. Gahring LC, Meyer EL, Rogers SW (2003). Nicotine-induced neuroprotection against N-methyl-D-aspartic acid or beta-amyloid peptide occur through independent mechanisms distinguished by pro-inflammatory cytokines. J Neurochem, 87(5), 1125-36.
  26. Meyer EL, Strutz N, Gahring LC, Rogers SW (2003). Glutamate receptor subunit 3 is modified by site-specific limited proteolysis including cleavage by gamma-secretase. J Biol Chem, 278(26), 23786-96.
  27. Meyer EL, Gahring LC, Rogers SW (2002). Nicotine preconditioning antagonizes activity-dependent caspase proteolysis of a glutamate receptor. J Biol Chem, 277(13), 10869-75.
  28. Carlson NG, Gahring LC, Rogers SW (2001). Identification of the amino acids on a neuronal glutamate receptor recognized by an autoantibody from a patient with paraneoplastic syndrome. J Neurosci Res, 63(6), 480-5.
  29. Rogers SW, Gregori NZ, Carlson N, Gahring LC, Noble M (2001). Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expression by O2A/oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Glia, 33(4), 306-13.
  30. Leibold EA, Gahring LC, Rogers SW (2001). Immunolocalization of iron regulatory protein expression in the murine central nervous system. Histochem Cell Biol, 115(3), 195-203.
  31. Gahring L, Carlson NG, Meyer EL, Rogers SW (2001). Granzyme B proteolysis of a neuronal glutamate receptor generates an autoantigen and is modulated by glycosylation. J Immunol, 166(3), 1433-8.
  32. Carlson NG, Howard J, Gahring LC, Rogers SW (2000). RNA editing (Q/R site) and flop/flip splicing of AMPA receptor transcripts in young and old brains. Neurobiol Aging, 21(4), 599-606.
  33. Carlson NG, Wieggel WA, Chen J, Bacchi A, Rogers SW, Gahring LC (1999). Inflammatory cytokines IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha impart neuroprotection to an excitotoxin through distinct pathways. J Immunol, 163(7), 3963-8.
  34. Gahring LC, Carlson NG, Wieggel WA, Howard J, Rogers SW (1999). Alcohol blocks TNFalpha but not other cytokine-mediated neuroprotection to NMDA. Alcohol Clin Exp Res, 23(10), 1571-9.
  35. McDonald S, Carlson NG, Gahring LC, Ely KR, Rogers SW (1999). A model for a glutamate receptor agonist antibody-binding site. J Mol Recognit, 12(4), 219-25.
  36. Rogers SW, Gahring LC, Collins AC, Marks M (1998). Age-related changes in neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha4 expression are modified by long-term nicotine administration. J Neurosci, 18(13), 4825-32.
  37. Rogers SW, Gahring LC, White HS (1998). Glutamate receptor GluR1 expression is altered selectively by chronic audiogenic seizures in the Frings mouse brain. J Neurobiol, 35(2), 209-16.
  38. Carlson NG, Bacchi A, Rogers SW, Gahring LC (1998). Nicotine blocks TNF-alpha-mediated neuroprotection to NMDA by an alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive pathway. J Neurobiol, 35(1), 29-36.
  39. Gahring LC, Carlson NG, Rogers SW (1998). Antibodies prepared to neuronal glutamate receptor subunit3 bind IFNalpha-receptors: implications for an autoimmune process. Autoimmunity, 28(4), 243-8.
  40. Carlson NG, Gahring LC, Twyman RE, Rogers SW (1997). Identification of amino acids in the glutamate receptor, GluR3, important for antibody-binding and receptor-specific activation. J Biol Chem, 272(17), 11295-301.
  41. Gahring LC, Rogers SW, Twyman RE (1997). Autoantibodies to glutamate receptor subunit GluR2 in nonfamilial olivopontocerebellar degeneration. Neurology, 48(2), 494-500.
  42. Gahring LC, White HS, Skradski SL, Carlson NG, Rogers SW (1997). Interleukin-1alpha in the brain is induced by audiogenic seizure. Neurobiol Dis, 3(4), 263-9.
  43. Gahring LC, Cauley K, Rogers SW (1996). Kainic acid induced excitotoxicity and cfos expression in fibroblasts transfected with glutamate receptor subunit, GluR1. J Neurobiol, 31(1), 56-66.
  44. Gahring LC, Carlson NG, Kulmar RA, Rogers SW (1996). Neuronal expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha in the murine brain. Neuroimmunomodulation, 3(5), 289-303.
  45. Cauley K, Marks M, Gahring LC, Rogers SW (1996). Nicotinic receptor subunits alpha 3, alpha 4, and beta 2 and high affinity nicotine binding sites are expressed by P19 embryonal cells. J Neurobiol, 30(2), 303-14.
  46. Twyman RE, Gahring LC, Spiess J, Rogers SW (1995). Glutamate receptor antibodies activate a subset of receptors and reveal an agonist binding site. Neuron, 14(4), 755-62.
  47. Gahring LC, Twyman RE, Greenlee JE, Rogers SW (1995). Autoantibodies to neuronal glutamate receptors in patients with paraneoplastic neurodegenerative syndrome enhance receptor activation. Mol Med, 1(3), 245-53.
  48. Rogers SW, Andrews PI, Gahring LC, Whisenand T, Cauley K, Crain B, Hughes TE, Heinemann SF, McNamara JO (1994). Autoantibodies to glutamate receptor GluR3 in Rasmussen's encephalitis. Science, 265(5172), 648-51.
  49. Gahring LC, Ernst DN, Romball CG, Thoman ML, Torbett BE, Hobbs M, Weigle WO (1993). The expression of CD45RB on antigen-responsive CD4+ lymphocytes: mouse strain polymorphism and different responses to distinct antigens. Cell Immunol, 148(2), 269-82.
  50. Rogers SW, Gahring LC, Papke RL, Heinemann S (1991). Identification of cultured cells expressing ligand-gated cationic channels. Protein Expr Purif, 2(2-3), 108-16.
  51. Gahring LC, Weigle WO (1990). The regulatory effects of cytokines on the induction of a peripheral immunologic tolerance in mice. J Immunol, 145(5), 1318-23.
  52. Gahring LC, Weigle WO (1990). The effect of aging on the induction of humoral and cellular immunity and tolerance in two long-lived mouse strains. Cell Immunol, 128(1), 142-51.
  53. Gahring LC, Heffron F, Finlay BB, Falkow S (1990). Invasion and replication of Salmonella typhimurium in animal cells. Infect Immun, 58(2), 443-8.
  54. Gahring LC, Weigle WO (1989). The induction of peripheral T cell unresponsiveness in adult mice by monomeric human gamma-globulin. J Immunol, 143(7), 2094-100.
  55. Weigle WO, Gahring LC, Romball CG, Goodman MG (1989). The effect of lipopolysaccharide desensitization on the regulation of in vivo induction of immunologic tolerance and antibody production and in vitro release of IL-1. J Immunol, 142(4), 1107-13.
  56. Robertson B, Gahring L, Newton R, Daynes R (1987). In vivo administration of interleukin 1 to normal mice depresses their capacity to elicit contact hypersensitivity responses: prostaglandins are involved in this modification of immune function. J Invest Dermatol, 88(4), 380-7.
  57. Robertson BA, Gahring LC, Daynes RA (1986). Neuropeptide regulation of interleukin-1 activities. Capacity of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone to inhibit interleukin-1-inducible responses in vivo and in vitro exhibits target cell selectivity. Inflammation, 10(4), 371-85.
  58. Gahring LC, Daynes RA (1986). Desensitization of animals to the inflammatory effects of ultraviolet radiation is mediated through mechanisms which are distinct from those responsible for endotoxin tolerance. J Immunol, 136(8), 2868-74.
  59. Burnham DK, Gahring LC, Daynes RA (1986). Clonal origin of tumors induced by ultraviolet radiation. J Natl Cancer Inst, 76(1), 151-8.
  60. Gahring LC, Buckley A, Daynes RA (1985). Presence of epidermal-derived thymocyte activating factor/interleukin 1 in normal human stratum corneum. J Clin Invest, 76(4), 1585-91.
  61. Beeson JH, Daynes RA, Weinert AM Jr, Gahring LC (1984). Tumors arising from injection of cultured murine placental cells into normal animals: direct evidence for placental origin of tumors of two histologic types. J Natl Cancer Inst, 73(3), 705-9.
  62. Gahring L, Baltz M, Pepys MB, Daynes R (1984). Effect of ultraviolet radiation on production of epidermal cell thymocyte-activating factor/interleukin 1 in vivo and in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 81(4), 1198-202.
  63. Schmitt MK, Roberts LK, Gahring LC, Daynes RA (1983). Enhanced tumorigenicity of cloned UV-regressor tumor lines following selected in vivo and in vitro manipulations. Am J Pathol, 113(3), 269-78.


  1. Gahring LC, Rogers SW (2005). Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expression and function on nonneuronal cells. [Review]. AAPS J, 7(4), E885-94.
  2. Gahring LC, Carlson NG, Meyer EL, Days EL, Rogers SW (2003). Neurodegenerative disease and the neuroimmunology of glutamate receptors. [Review]. 32, 139-158.
  3. Gahring LC, Rogers SW (2002). Autoimmunity to glutamate receptors in the central nervous system. [Review]. Crit Rev Immunol, 22(4), 295-316.
  4. Gahring LC, Rogers SW (2002). Autoimmunity to CNS Neurotransmitter Receptors. [Review]. Crit Rev Immunol, 22, 295-316.
  5. Twyman RE, Rogers SW, Gahring LC, Carlson NG, Donevan SD (1999). Antibodies to glutamate receptors: a role in excitatory dysregulation of the central nervous system? [Review]. Adv Neurol, 79, 535-541.
  6. Twyman RE, Rogers SW, Gahring LC, Carlson NG, Donevan SD (1999). Antibodies to glutamate receptors: a role in excitatory dysregulation of the central nervous system? [Review]. Adv Neurol, 79, 535-41.
  7. Gahring LC, Rogers SW (1998). Autoimmunity to glutamate receptors in Rasmussen's encephalitis: A rare finding or the tip of an iceberg? [Review]. Neuroscientist, 4, 373-379.
  8. Rogers SW, Twyman RE, Gahring LC (1996). The role of autoimmunity to glutamate receptors in neurological disease. [Review]. Mol Med Today, 2(2), 76-81.
  9. Daynes RA, Samlowski WE, Burnham DK, Gahring LC, Roberts LK (1986). Immunobiological consequences of acute and chronic UV exposure. [Review]. Curr Probl Dermatol, 15, 176-94.
  10. Gahring LC, Daynes RA (1985). The presence of functionally active ETAF/IL-1 in normal human stratum corneum. [Review]. 2, 375.
  11. Daynes RA, Sholly SP, Gahring LC, Spangrude GJ (1984). The skin: the primary immunologic organ involved in burn injury. [Review]. J Trauma, 24, 584.

Book Chapter

  1. Gahring LC, Weigle WO (1990). Experimental models of T cell tolerance. In Farid NR, Bona CA (Eds.), Molecular Aspects of Autoimmunity (p. 175). Academic Press, Inc.
  2. Fields PA, Gahring LC, Heffron F, Smith LD (1989). Identification of new avirulent Salmonella strains as potential vaccine delivery systems.
  3. Heffron F, Gahring LC, Fields PA, Roth J (1988). Pathogenesis of the intracellular pathogen Salmonella typhimurium. In Horowitz M (Ed.), Bacteria-Host Cell Interaction (64, p. 303). UCLA Symposia on Molecular and Cellular Biology.
  4. Daynes RA, Samlowski WE, Burnham DK, Gahring LC, Roberts LK (1986). Biologic consequences of acute and chronic UV exposure. In Therapeutic Photomedicine. S. Karger Press.


  1. Gahring, LC, Heffron, F, Finlay, BB, Falkow, S (2005). Normal Replication of Macrophage-sensitive mutants of S. Typhimurium in Epithelial cells [Abstract]. Infection and Immunity, 58, 443-448.
  2. Cauley, K, Marks, M, Gahring, LC, Rogers, SW (2005). Neuronal Nicotinic Receptor Genes a4 and b2 and high affinity nicotine binding sites are induced in P19 Embryonal Carcinoma Cells by Retinoic Acid [Abstract]. Journal of Neurobiology, 30, 303-314.
  3. Gahring, LC, Osborne-Hereford, AV, Vasquez-Opazo, GA, Rogers, SW (2005). TNFa Enhances Nicotinic Receptor Upregulation Via a p38MAPK-Dependent Pathway [Abstract]. Chemistry, (283), 693-9.
  4. Gahring, LC, Vasquez-Opazo, G, Rogers, SW (2005). Choline Promotes NicotinicReceptor Alpha4 + Beta2 upregulation [Abstract]. J. Biol. Chem, 19793-801.
  5. Gahring, LC, Rogers, SW (2010). The Nicotinic Receptor Subunit Alpha5 Modifies Assembly, Upregulation and Response to Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines [Abstract]. J. Bol. Chem, 285(34), 26049-57.
  6. Gahring, LC, Osborne, AV, Reed, M, Rogers, SW (2010). Neuronal Nicotinic Alpha7 Receptors Modulate Early Neutrophils Infiltration to Sites of Skin Inflammation [Abstract]. J. Neuroinflammation, 7(1), 38.


  1. Gahring LC (1995). Paying Attention to a Sick Rabbit. R & D Innovator (2, pp. 6-7).


  1. Rogers SW, Gahring LC, Twyman RE (2000). Autoantibodies to neurotransmitter receptors. U.S. Patent No. 6,010,854. Washington, D.C.:U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
  2. Rogers SW, Gahring LC, Twyman RE (1998). Peptide for Blocking Autoantibody-Evoked Activation of Glutamate Receptor Type 3 (GluR3). U.S. Patent No. 5,731,410. Washington, D.C.:U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.