Gary C. Schoenwolf, PhD

Research Interests

  • Developmental Biology
  • Morphogenesis
  • Cell Communication
  • Cell Signaling
  • Inner Ear
  • Growth Factors
  • Birth Defects
  • Congenital Anomalies

Languages

  • English

Academic Information

  • Departments: Neurobiology & Anatomy - Distinguished Professor, Pediatrics - Adjunct Professor
  • Divisions: Pediatric Administration

Academic Office Information

  • 801-581-6453
  • School of Medicine
    30 N 1900 E, Room: 2R 066
    Salt Lake City, UT 84132

Email: schoenwolf@neuro.utah.edu

Academic Bio

The Schoenwolf laboratory addresses the general question of how intercellular and intracellular signaling results in the generation of pattern during vertebrate embryogenesis. Although we work on a number of diverse organ rudiments and developmental events using multiple experimental organisms, our current work is focused on normal and abnormal development of the inner ear. Our research combines molecular, cellular, embryological, transgenic, imaging, and in vitro and in vivo approaches. This work is relevant for understanding birth defects, cancer, and aging.

Dr. Schoenwolf is also actively involved in mentoring and teaching grant writing.

Education History

Type School Degree
Other Training University of Utah
Management Certificate Program
Certificate
Postdoctoral Fellowship University of New Mexico
Postdoctoral Fellow
Doctoral Training University of Illinois
Genetics and Development
Ph.D.
Graduate Training University of Washington, Friday Harbor Laboratories
Visiting Graduate Student
Graduate Training University of Illinois
Genetics and Development
M.S.
Undergraduate Elmhurst College
Biology
B.A.

Selected Publications

Journal Article

  1. Ohta S, Wang B, Mansour SL, Schoenwolf GC (2016 Dec 01). SHH ventralizes the otocyst by maintaining basal PKA activity and regulating GLI3 signaling. Dev Biol, 420(1), 100-109.
  2. Ohta S, Wang B, Mansour SL, Schoenwolf GC (2016 Jun 15). BMP regulates regional gene expression in the dorsal otocyst through canonical and non-canonical intracellular pathways. Development, 143(12), 2228-37.
  3. Olaya-Sanchez D, Sanchez-Guardado LO, Ohta S, Chapman SC, Schoenwolf GC, Puelles L, Hidalgo-Sanchez M (2016 Mar 19). Fgf3 and Fgf16 expression patterns define spatial and temporal domains in the developing chick inner ear. (Epub ahead of print) Brain Struct Funct.
  4. Hung IH, Schoenwolf GC, Lewandoski M, Ornitz DM (2016 Mar 01). A combined series of Fgf9 and Fgf18 mutant alleles identifies unique and redundant roles in skeletal development. Dev Biol, 411(1), 72-84.
  5. Schoenwolf GC (2013 Dec). Getting published well requires fulfilling editors' and reviewers' needs and desires. Dev Growth Differ, 55(9), 735-43.
  6. Nishita J, Ohta S, Bleyl SB, Schoenwolf GC (2011 Jun). Detection of isoform-specific fibroblast growth factor receptors by whole-mount in situ hybridization in early chick embryos. Dev Dyn, 240(6), 1537-47.
  7. Ohta S, Mansour SL, Schoenwolf GC (2010 Nov 15). BMP/SMAD signaling regulates the cell behaviors that drive the initial dorsal-specific regional morphogenesis of the otocyst. Dev Biol, 347(2), 369-81.
  8. Ohta S, Schoenwolf GC, Yamada G (2010 Jul-Sep). The cessation of gastrulation: BMP signaling and EMT during and at the end of gastrulation. Cell Adh Migr, 4(3), 440-6.
  9. Urness LD, Paxton CN, Wang X, Schoenwolf GC, Mansour SL (2010 Apr 15). FGF signaling regulates otic placode induction and refinement by controlling both ectodermal target genes and hindbrain Wnt8a. Dev Biol, 340(2), 595-604.
  10. Bleyl SB, Saijoh Y, Bax NA, Gittenberger-de Groot AC, Wisse LJ, Chapman SC, Hunter J, Shiratori H, Hamada H, Yamada S, Shiota K, Klewer SE, Leppert MF, Schoenwolf GC (2010 Apr 1). Dysregulation of the PDGFRA gene causes inflow tract anomalies including TAPVR: integrating evidence from human genetics and model organisms. Hum Mol Genet, 19(7), 1286-301.
  11. Paxton CN, Bleyl SB, Chapman SC, Schoenwolf GC (2010 Jan). Identification of differentially expressed genes in early inner ear development. Gene Expr Patterns, 10(1), 31-43.
  12. Bleyl SB, Moshrefi A, Shaw GM, Saijoh Y, Schoenwolf GC, Pennacchio LA, Slavotinek AM (2007 Sep). Candidate genes for congenital diaphragmatic hernia from animal models: sequencing of FOG2 and PDGFRalpha reveals rare variants in diaphragmatic hernia patients. Eur J Hum Genet, 15(9), 950-8.
  13. Chapman SC, Matsumoto K, Cai Q, Schoenwolf GC (2007). Specification of germ layer identity in the chick gastrula. BMC Dev Biol, 7, 91.
  14. Decastro M, Saijoh Y, Schoenwolf GC (2006 Aug). Optimized cationic lipid-based gene delivery reagents for use in developing vertebrate embryos. Dev Dyn, 235(8), 2210-9.
  15. Chapman SC, Cai Q, Bleyl SB, Schoenwolf GC (2006 Aug). Restricted expression of Fgf16 within the developing chick inner ear. Dev Dyn, 235(8), 2276-81.
  16. Chapman SC, Sawitzke AL, Campbell DS, Schoenwolf GC (2005 Jul 11). A three-dimensional atlas of pituitary gland development in the zebrafish. J Comp Neurol, 487(4), 428-40.
  17. Anderson-Berry A, OBrien EA, Bleyl SB, Lawson A, Gundersen N, Ryssman D, Sweeley J, Dahl MJ, Drake CJ, Schoenwolf GC, Albertine KH (2005 May). Vasculogenesis drives pulmonary vascular growth in the developing chick embryo. Dev Dyn, 233(1), 145-53.
  18. Chapman SC, Lawson A, Macarthur WC, Wiese RJ, Loechel RH, Burgos-Trinidad M, Wakefield JK, Ramabhadran R, Mauch TJ, Schoenwolf GC (2005 Mar). Ubiquitous GFP expression in transgenic chickens using a lentiviral vector. Development, 132(5), 935-40.
  19. Ladher RK, Wright TJ, Moon AM, Mansour SL, Schoenwolf GC (2005 Mar 1). FGF8 initiates inner ear induction in chick and mouse. Genes Dev, 19(5), 603-13.
  20. Sawitzke AL, Chapman SC, Bleyl SB, Schoenwolf GC (2005 Jan-Feb). Improvements in histological quality and signal retention following in situ hybridization in early chick embryos using plastic resin and recolorization. Biotech Histochem, 80(1), 35-41.
  21. Lopez-Sanchez C, Garcia-Martinez V, Lawson A, Chapman SC, Schoenwolf GC (2004 Jun). Rapid triple-labeling method combining in situ hybridization and double immunocytochemistry. Dev Dyn, 230(2), 309-15.
  22. Wright TJ, Ladher R, McWhirter J, Murre C, Schoenwolf GC, Mansour SL (2004 May 1). Mouse FGF15 is the ortholog of human and chick FGF19, but is not uniquely required for otic induction. Dev Biol, 269(1), 264-75.
  23. Antin PB, Fallon JF, Schoenwolf GC (2004 Mar). The chick embryo rules (still)! Dev Dyn, 229(3), 413.
  24. Chapman SC, Brown R, Lees L, Schoenwolf GC, Lumsden A (2004 Mar). Expression analysis of chick Wnt and frizzled genes and selected inhibitors in early chick patterning. Dev Dyn, 229(3), 668-76.
  25. Schoenwolf GC (2004 Jan). In honor of James A. Weston and the neural crest. Dev Dyn, 229(1), 1.
  26. Schoenwolf GC (2003 Dec). Trink: His life, his philosophy. Dev Dyn, 228(4), 591-593.
  27. Schoenwolf GC (2003 Dec). In memory of John Philip Trinkaus. Dev Dyn, 228(4), 585.
  28. Chapman SC, Schubert FR, Schoenwolf GC, Lumsden A (2003 Nov). Anterior identity is established in chick epiblast by hypoblast and anterior definitive endoderm. Development, 130(21), 5091-101.
  29. Colas JF, Schoenwolf GC (2003 Oct). Assessing the contributions of gene products to the form-shaping events of neurulation: a transgenic approach in chick. Genesis, 37(2), 64-75.
  30. Schoenwolf GC (2003 Oct). What's cool in Dev Bio. Dev Dyn, 228(2), 151.
  31. Wright TJ, Hatch EP, Karabagli H, Karabagli P, Schoenwolf GC, Mansour SL (2003 Oct). Expression of mouse fibroblast growth factor and fibroblast growth factor receptor genes during early inner ear development. Dev Dyn, 228(2), 267-72.
  32. Colas JF, Schoenwolf GC (2003 Sep-Oct). Differential expression of two cell adhesion molecules, Ephrin-A5 and Integrin alpha6, during cranial neurulation in the chick embryo. Dev Neurosci, 25(5), 357-65.
  33. Lawson A, Schoenwolf GC (2003 Aug). Epiblast and primitive-streak origins of the endoderm in the gastrulating chick embryo. Development, 130(15), 3491-501.
  34. Schoenwolf GC (2003 Aug). Book look. Dev Dyn, 227(4), 469.
  35. Colas JF, Schoenwolf GC (2003 Mar 14). Localization of cartilage linking protein 1 during primary neurulation in the chick embryo. Brain Res Dev Brain Res, 141(1-2), 141-8.
  36. Kirby ML, Lawson A, Stadt HA, Kumiski DH, Wallis KT, McCraney E, Waldo KL, Li YX, Schoenwolf GC (2003 Jan 15). Hensen's node gives rise to the ventral midline of the foregut: implications for organizing head and heart development. Dev Biol, 253(2), 175-88.
  37. Wright, TJ, E Hatch, H Karbagli, GC Schoenwolf, SL Mansour (2003-01-01). Expression of mouse fibroglast growth factor and fibroblast growth factor receptor genes during early inner ear development. Dev Dyn, 228, 267-272.
  38. Karabagli H, Karabagli P, Ladher RK, Schoenwolf GC (2002 Oct). Comparison of the expression patterns of several fibroblast growth factors during chick gastrulation and neurulation. Anat Embryol (Berl), 205(5-6), 365-70.
  39. Karabagli H, Karabagli P, Ladher RK, Schoenwolf GC (2002 Sep 1). Survey of fibroblast growth factor expression during chick organogenesis. Anat Rec, 268(1), 1-6.
  40. Lopez-Sanchez C, Climent V, Schoenwolf GC, Alvarez IS, Garcia-Martinez V (2002 Aug). Induction of cardiogenesis by Hensen's node and fibroblast growth factors. Cell Tissue Res, 309(2), 237-49.
  41. Chapman SC, Schubert FR, Schoenwolf GC, Lumsden A (2002 May 1). Analysis of spatial and temporal gene expression patterns in blastula and gastrula stage chick embryos. Dev Biol, 245(1), 187-99.
  42. Schoenwolf GC (2002 Mar). Principles of developmental biology. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact, 2(3), 268-9.
  43. Gallego-Diaz V, Schoenwolf GC, Alvarez IS (2002 Feb-Mar 1). The effects of BMPs on early chick embryos suggest a conserved signaling mechanism for epithelial and neural induction among vertebrates. Brain Res Bull, 57(3-4), 289-91.
  44. Healy KH, Schoenwolf GC, Darnell DK (2001 Oct). Cell interactions underlying notochord induction and formation in the chick embryo. Dev Dyn, 222(2), 165-77.
  45. Lawson A, Schoenwolf GC (2001 Apr). Cell populations and morphogenetic movements underlying formation of the avian primitive streak and organizer. Genesis, 29(4), 188-95.
  46. Chapman SC, Collignon J, Schoenwolf GC, Lumsden A (2001 Mar). Improved method for chick whole-embryo culture using a filter paper carrier. Dev Dyn, 220(3), 284-9.
  47. Lawson A, Schoenwolf GC (2001 Mar 1). New insights into critical events of avian gastrulation. Anat Rec, 262(3), 238-52.
  48. Lawson A, Anderson H, Schoenwolf GC (2001 Feb 1). Cellular mechanisms of neural fold formation and morphogenesis in the chick embryo. Anat Rec, 262(2), 153-68.
  49. Lawson A, Colas JF, Schoenwolf GC (2001 Feb 1). Classification scheme for genes expressed during formation and progression of the avian primitive streak. Anat Rec, 262(2), 221-6.
  50. Lopez-Sanchez C, Garcia-Martinez V, Schoenwolf GC (2001). Localization of cells of the prospective neural plate, heart and somites within the primitive streak and epiblast of avian embryos at intermediate primitive-streak stages. Cells Tissues Organs, 169(4), 334-46.
  51. Ladher RK, Anakwe KU, Gurney AL, Schoenwolf GC, Francis-West PH (2000 Dec 8). Identification of synergistic signals initiating inner ear development. Science, 290(5498), 1965-7.
  52. Stark MR, Rao MS, Schoenwolf GC, Yang G, Smith D, Mauch TJ (2000 Nov). Frizzled-4 expression during chick kidney development. Mech Dev, 98(1-2), 121-5.
  53. Yuan S, Schoenwolf GC (2000 Oct 1). Islet-1 marks the early heart rudiments and is asymmetrically expressed during early rotation of the foregut in the chick embryo. Anat Rec, 260(2), 204-7.
  54. Colas JF, Schoenwolf GC (2000 Sep 19). Subtractive hybridization identifies chick-cripto, a novel EGF-CFC ortholog expressed during gastrulation, neurulation and early cardiogenesis. Gene, 255(2), 205-17.
  55. Lawson A, Colas JF, Schoenwolf GC (2000 Sep 1). Ectodermal markers delineate the neural fold interface during avian neurulation. Anat Rec, 260(1), 106-9.
  56. Colas JF, Lawson A, Schoenwolf GC (2000 Jun). Evidence that translation of smooth muscle alpha-actin mRNA is delayed in the chick promyocardium until fusion of the bilateral heart-forming regions. Dev Dyn, 218(2), 316-30.
  57. Stark MR, Biggs JJ, Schoenwolf GC, Rao MS (2000 May). Characterization of avian frizzled genes in cranial placode development. Mech Dev, 93(1-2), 195-200.
  58. Mauch TJ, Yang G, Wright M, Smith D, Schoenwolf GC (2000 Apr 1). Signals from trunk paraxial mesoderm induce pronephros formation in chick intermediate mesoderm. Dev Biol, 220(1), 62-75.
  59. Darnell DK, Schoenwolf GC (2000). The chick embryo as a model system for analyzing mechanisms of development. Methods Mol Biol, 135, 25-9.
  60. Darnell DK, Garcia-Martinez V, Lopez-Sanchez C, Yuan S, Schoenwolf GC (2000). Dynamic labeling techniques for fate mapping, testing cell commitment, and following living cells in avian embryos. Methods Mol Biol, 135, 305-21.
  61. Darnell DK, Schoenwolf GC (2000). Transplantation chimeras. Use in analyzing mechanisms of avian development. Methods Mol Biol, 135, 367-71.
  62. Schoenwolf GC (2000). Molecular genetic control of axis patterning during early embryogenesis of vertebrates. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 919, 246-60.
  63. Darnell DK, Schoenwolf GC (2000). Culture of avian embryos. Methods Mol Biol, 135, 31-8.
  64. Yuan S, Schoenwolf GC (1999 Nov). The spatial and temporal pattern of C-Lmx1 expression in the neuroectoderm during chick neurulation. Mech Dev, 88(2), 243-7.
  65. Lawson A, Schoenwolf GC, England MA, Addai FK, Ahima RS (1999 Nov). Programmed cell death and the morphogenesis of the hindbrain roof plate in the chick embryo. Anat Embryol (Berl), 200(5), 509-19.
  66. Davidson BP, Kinder SJ, Steiner K, Schoenwolf GC, Tam PP (1999 Jul 1). Impact of node ablation on the morphogenesis of the body axis and the lateral asymmetry of the mouse embryo during early organogenesis. Dev Biol, 211(1), 11-26.
  67. Darnell DK, Stark MR, Schoenwolf GC (1999 Jun). Timing and cell interactions underlying neural induction in the chick embryo. Development, 126(11), 2505-14.
  68. Yuan S, Schoenwolf GC (1999 Jun). Reconstitution of the organizer is both sufficient and required to re-establish a fully patterned body plan in avian embryos. Development, 126(11), 2461-73.
  69. Thayer JM, Schoenwolf GC (1998 Feb). Early expression of Osteopontin in the chick is restricted to rhombomeres 5 and 6 and to a subpopulation of neural crest cells that arise from these segments. Anat Rec, 250(2), 199-209.
  70. Yuan S, Schoenwolf GC (1998 Jan). De novo induction of the organizer and formation of the primitive streak in an experimental model of notochord reconstitution in avian embryos. Development, 125(2), 201-13.
  71. Hackett DA, Smith JL, Schoenwolf GC (1997 Dec). Epidermal ectoderm is required for full elevation and for convergence during bending of the avian neural plate. Dev Dyn, 210(4), 397-406.
  72. Rodriguez-Gallardo L, Climent V, Garcia-Martinez V, Schoenwolf GC, Alvarez IS (1997 Oct). Targeted over-expression of FGF in chick embryos induces formation of ectopic neural cells. Int J Dev Biol, 41(5), 715-23.
  73. Sausedo RA, Smith JL, Schoenwolf GC (1997 May 19). Role of nonrandomly oriented cell division in shaping and bending of the neural plate. J Comp Neurol, 381(4), 473-88.
  74. Darnell DK, Schoenwolf GC (1997 May). Vertical induction of engrailed-2 and other region-specific markers in the early chick embryo. Dev Dyn, 209(1), 45-58.
  75. Inagaki T, Schoenwolf GC, Walker ML (1997 Apr). Experimental model: change in the posterior fossa with surgically induced spina bifida aperta in mouse. Pediatr Neurosurg, 26(4), 185-9.
  76. Garcia-Martinez V, Darnell DK, Lopez-Sanchez C, Sosic D, Olson EN, Schoenwolf GC (1997 Jan 1). State of commitment of prospective neural plate and prospective mesoderm in late gastrula/early neurula stages of avian embryos. Dev Biol, 181(1), 102-15.
  77. Garton HJ, Schoenwolf GC (1996 Jan). Improving the efficacy of fluorescent labeling for histological tracking of cells in early mammalian and avian embryos. Anat Rec, 244(1), 112-17.
  78. Yuan S, Darnell DK, Schoenwolf GC (1995 Dec). Identification of inducing, responding, and suppressing regions in an experimental model of notochord formation in avian embryos. Dev Biol, 172(2), 567-84.
  79. Moury JD, Schoenwolf GC (1995 Nov). Cooperative model of epithelial shaping and bending during avian neurulation: autonomous movements of the neural plate, autonomous movements of the epidermis, and interactions in the neural plate/epidermis transition zone. Dev Dyn, 204(3), 323-37.
  80. Schoenwolf GC, Yuan S (1995 May). Experimental analyses of the rearrangement of ectodermal cells during gastrulation and neurulation in avian embryos. Cell Tissue Res, 280(2), 243-51.
  81. Darnell DK, Schoenwolf GC (1995 Jan). Dorsoventral patterning of the avian mesencephalon/metencephalon: role of the notochord and floor plate in suppressing Engrailed-2. J Neurobiol, 26(1), 62-74.
  82. Yuan S, Darnell DK, Schoenwolf GC (1995). Mesodermal patterning during avian gastrulation and neurulation: experimental induction of notochord from non-notochordal precursor cells. Dev Genet, 17(1), 38-54.
  83. Sulik K, Dehart DB, Iangaki T, Carson JL, Vrablic T, Gesteland K, Schoenwolf GC (1994 Nov). Morphogenesis of the murine node and notochordal plate. Dev Dyn, 201(3), 260-78.
  84. Smith JL, Gesteland KM, Schoenwolf GC (1994 Nov). Prospective fate map of the mouse primitive streak at 7.5 days of gestation. Dev Dyn, 201(3), 279-89.
  85. Sausedo RA, Schoenwolf GC (1994 May). Quantitative analyses of cell behaviors underlying notochord formation and extension in mouse embryos. Anat Rec, 239(1), 103-12.
  86. Smith JL, Schoenwolf GC, Quan J (1994 Apr 1). Quantitative analyses of neuroepithelial cell shapes during bending of the mouse neural plate. J Comp Neurol, 342(1), 144-51.
  87. Garcia-Martinez V, Alvarez IS, Schoenwolf GC (1993 Nov 15). Locations of the ectodermal and nonectodermal subdivisions of the epiblast at stages 3 and 4 of avian gastrulation and neurulation. J Exp Zool, 267(4), 431-46.
  88. Garcia-Martinez V, Schoenwolf GC (1993 Oct). Primitive-streak origin of the cardiovascular system in avian embryos. Dev Biol, 159(2), 706-19.
  89. Sausedo RA, Schoenwolf GC (1993 Sep). Cell behaviors underlying notochord formation and extension in avian embryos: quantitative and immunocytochemical studies. Anat Rec, 237(1), 58-70.
  90. Inagaki T, Schoenwolf GC (1993 Jul). Axis development in avian embryos: the ability of Hensen's node to self-differentiate, as analyzed with heterochronic grafting experiments. Anat Embryol (Berl), 188(1), 1-11.
  91. Inagaki T, Garcia-Martinez V, Schoenwolf GC (1993 May). Regulative ability of the prospective cardiogenic and vasculogenic areas of the primitive streak during avian gastrulation. Dev Dyn, 197(1), 57-68.
  92. Ellis LC, Smith AM, Alvarez IS, Schoenwolf GC (1993 Apr). Monoclonal antibodies identifying subsets of ectodermal, mesodermal, and endodermal cells in gastrulating and neurulating avian embryos. Anat Rec, 235(4), 591-603.
  93. Schoenwolf GC (1992 Jun). Morphological and mapping studies of the paranodal and postnodal levels of the neural plate during chick neurulation. Anat Rec, 233(2), 281-90.
  94. Darnell DK, Schoenwolf GC, Ordahl CP (1992 Apr). Changes in dorsoventral but not rostrocaudal regionalization of the chick neural tube in the absence of cranial notochord, as revealed by expression of engrailed-2. Dev Dyn, 193(4), 389-96.
  95. Alvarez IS, Schoenwolf GC (1992 Mar 1). Expansion of surface epithelium provides the major extrinsic force for bending of the neural plate. J Exp Zool, 261(3), 340-8.
  96. Schoenwolf GC, Garcia-Martinez V, Dias MS (1992 Mar). Mesoderm movement and fate during avian gastrulation and neurulation. Dev Dyn, 193(3), 235-48.
  97. Garcia-Martinez V, Schoenwolf GC (1992 Mar). Positional control of mesoderm movement and fate during avian gastrulation and neurulation. Dev Dyn, 193(3), 249-56.
  98. Schoenwolf GC, Alvarez IS (1991 Jul). Specification of neurepithelium and surface epithelium in avian transplantation chimeras. Development, 112(3), 713-22.
  99. Smith JL, Schoenwolf GC (1991 May 8). Further evidence of extrinsic forces in bending of the neural plate. J Comp Neurol, 307(2), 225-36.
  100. Alvarez IS, Schoenwolf GC (1991 Jan). Patterns of neurepithelial cell rearrangement during avian neurulation are determined prior to notochordal inductive interactions. Dev Biol, 143(1), 78-92.
  101. Dias MS, Schoenwolf GC (1990 Dec). Formation of ectopic neurepithelium in chick blastoderms: age-related capacities for induction and self-differentiation following transplantation of quail Hensen's nodes. Anat Rec, 228(4), 437-48.
  102. Schoenwolf GC, Sheard P (1990 Sep). Fate mapping the avian epiblast with focal injections of a fluorescent-histochemical marker: ectodermal derivatives. J Exp Zool, 255(3), 323-39.
  103. Schoenwolf GC, Alvarez IS (1989 Jul). Roles of neuroepithelial cell rearrangement and division in shaping of the avian neural plate. Development, 106(3), 427-39.
  104. Smith JL, Schoenwolf GC (1989 Apr). Notochordal induction of cell wedging in the chick neural plate and its role in neural tube formation. J Exp Zool, 250(1), 49-62.
  105. Schoenwolf GC, Bortier H, Vakaet L (1989 Mar). Fate mapping the avian neural plate with quail/chick chimeras: origin of prospective median wedge cells. J Exp Zool, 249(3), 271-8.
  106. Schoenwolf GC, Sheard P (1989 Jan). Shaping and bending of the avian neural plate as analysed with a fluorescent-histochemical marker. Development, 105(1), 17-25.
  107. Schoenwolf GC, Everaert S, Bortier H, Vakaet L (1989). Neural plate- and neural tube-forming potential of isolated epiblast areas in avian embryos. Anat Embryol (Berl), 179(6), 541-9.
  108. Schoenwolf GC (1988 Oct 22). Microsurgical analyses of avian neurulation: separation of medial and lateral tissues. J Comp Neurol, 276(4), 498-507.
  109. Smith JL, Schoenwolf GC (1988 Jun). Role of cell-cycle in regulating neuroepithelial cell shape during bending of the chick neural plate. Cell Tissue Res, 252(3), 491-500.
  110. Schoenwolf GC, Folsom D, Moe A (1988 Jan). A reexamination of the role of microfilaments in neurulation in the chick embryo. Anat Rec, 220(1), 87-102.
  111. Fineman RM, Schoenwolf GC (1987 Jul). Animal model: dysmorphogenesis and death in a chicken embryo model. Am J Med Genet, 27(3), 543-52.
  112. Schoenwolf GC, Powers ML (1987 Jun). Shaping of the chick neuroepithelium during primary and secondary neurulation: role of cell elongation. Anat Rec, 218(2), 182-95.
  113. Smith JL, Schoenwolf GC (1987 Jun). Cell cycle and neuroepithelial cell shape during bending of the chick neural plate. Anat Rec, 218(2), 196-206.
  114. Fineman RM, Schoenwolf GC, Huff M, Davis PL (1986 Nov). Causes of windowing-induced dysmorphogenesis (neural tube defects and early amnion deficit spectrum) in chicken embryos. Am J Med Genet, 25(3), 489-505.
  115. Desmond ME, Schoenwolf GC (1986 Sep). Evaluation of the roles of intrinsic and extrinsic factors in occlusion of the spinal neurocoel during rapid brain enlargement in the chick embryo. J Embryol Exp Morphol, 97, 25-46.
  116. Schoenwolf GC, Desmond ME (1986 Apr 22). Timing and positioning of reopening of the occluded spinal neurocele in the chick embryo. J Comp Neurol, 246(4), 459-66.
  117. Pacheco MA, Marks RW, Schoenwolf GC, Desmond ME (1986 Apr). Quantification of the initial phases of rapid brain enlargement in the chick embryo. Am J Anat, 175(4), 403-11.
  118. Schoenwolf GC, Chandler NB, Smith JL (1985 Aug). Analysis of the origins and early fates of neural crest cells in caudal regions of avian embryos. Dev Biol, 110(2), 467-79.
  119. Desmond ME, Schoenwolf GC (1985 May 22). Timing and positioning of occlusion of the spinal neurocele in the chick embryo. J Comp Neurol, 235(4), 479-87.
  120. Schoenwolf GC (1985 May). Shaping and bending of the avian neuroepithelium: morphometric analyses. Dev Biol, 109(1), 127-39.
  121. Schoenwolf GC, Franks MV (1984 Oct). Quantitative analyses of changes in cell shapes during bending of the avian neural plate. Dev Biol, 105(2), 257-72.
  122. Schoenwolf GC, Desmond ME (1984 Jun). Descriptive studies of occlusion and reopening of the spinal canal of the early chick embryo. Anat Rec, 209(2), 251-63.
  123. Schoenwolf GC, Desmond ME (1984 Jun). Neural tube occlusion precedes rapid brain enlargement. J Exp Zool, 230(3), 405-7.
  124. Schoenwolf GC (1984 Apr). Histological and ultrastructural studies of secondary neurulation in mouse embryos. Am J Anat, 169(4), 361-76.
  125. Schoenwolf GC, Nichols DH (1984 Feb 1). Histological and ultrastructural studies on the origin of caudal neural crest cells in mouse embryos. J Comp Neurol, 222(4), 496-505.
  126. Chandler NB, Schoenwolf GC (1983 Jul). Wrinkle-free plastic sections for light microscopy. Stain Technol, 58(4), 238-40.
  127. Fisher M, Schoenwolf GC (1983 Feb). The use of early chick embryos in experimental embryology and teratology: improvements in standard procedures. Teratology, 27(1), 65-72.
  128. Schoenwolf GC, Fisher M (1983 Feb). Analysis of the effects of Streptomyces hyaluronidase on formation of the neural tube. J Embryol Exp Morphol, 73, 1-15.
  129. Schoenwolf, GC, NB Chandler (1983-01-01). A novel sectioning technique for use in descriptive embryology: Bridging the gap between paraffin and plastic serial sections. Anat Rec, 206, 221-225.
  130. Schoenwolf GC (1982 May). A simple method for fabricating inexpensive storage boxes for 6.35 mm-thick glass knives. Stain Technol, 57(3), 185-90.
  131. Costanzo R, Watterson RL, Schoenwolf GC (1982 Feb 1). Evidence that secondary neurulation occurs autonomously in the chick embryo. J Exp Zool, 219(2), 233-40.
  132. Schoenwolf GC, Singh U (1981 Oct). Changes in the surface morphologies of the cells in the bursa cloacalis (bursa of Fabricius) and thymus during ontogeny of the chick embryo. Anat Rec, 201(2), 303-16.
  133. Schoenwolf GC (1981). Morphogenetic processes involved in the remodeling of the tail region of the chick embryo. Anat Embryol (Berl), 162(2), 183-97.
  134. Schoenwolf GC, Bell LA, Watterson RL (1981 Jan). Vasculogenesis of the bursa cloacalis (bursa of Fabricius) of the chick embryo. J Morphol, 167(1), 35-42.
  135. Waterman RE, Schoenwolf GC (1980 Aug). The ultrastructure of oral (buccopharyngeal) membrane formation and rupture in the chick embryo. Anat Rec, 197(4), 441-70.
  136. Schoenwolf GC, Kelley RO (1980 May). Characterization of intercellular junctions in the caudal portion of the developing neural tube of the chick embryo. Am J Anat, 158(1), 29-41.
  137. Schoenwolf GC, Delongo J (1980 May). Ultrastructure of secondary neurulation in the chick embryo. Am J Anat, 158(1), 43-63.
  138. Schoenwolf GC (1979 Aug). Observations on closure of the neuropores in the chick embryo. Am J Anat, 155(4), 445-65.
  139. Schoenwolf GC (1979 Jan). Histological and ultrastructural observations of tail bud formation in the chick embryo. Anat Rec, 193(1), 131-47.
  140. Schoenwolf GC (1978 Oct). Effects of complete tail bud extirpation on early development of the posterior region of the chick embryo. Anat Rec, 192(2), 289-95.
  141. Schoenwolf, GC (1978-01-01). An SEM study of posterior spinal cord development region of the chick embryo. Scan Electron Microsc, II, 739-746.
  142. Schoenwolf, GC (1977-01-01). Tail (end) bud contributions to the posterior region of the chick embryo. J Exp Zool, 201, 227-246.
  143. Keller, RE, GC Schoenwolf (1977-01-01). An SEM study of cellular morphology, contact, and arrangement, as related to gastrulation in Xenopus laevis. Wilhelm Roux Arch Dev Biol, 182, 165-186.

Review

  1. Francis-West, P, RK Ladher, GC Schoewolf (2002-01-01). Development of Sensory Organs. [Review]. Sci Prog, 84, 151-173.
  2. Schoenwolf GC (2001 Nov). Cutting, pasting and painting: experimental embryology and neural development. [Review]. Nat Rev Neurosci, 2(11), 763-71.
  3. Colas JF, Schoenwolf GC (2001 Jun). Towards a cellular and molecular understanding of neurulation. [Review]. Dev Dyn, 221(2), 117-45.
  4. Schoenwolf, GC (2001-01-01). Principles fo development biology. [Review]. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact, 2, 268-269.
  5. Inagaki T, Smith JL, Walker ML, Schoenwolf GC (2000). Neural tube defects. [Review]. Methods Mol Biol, 136, 161-6.
  6. Schoenwolf, GC (2000-01-01). Molecular genetic control of axis patterning during early embryogenesis of vertebrates. [Review]. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 919, 246-260.
  7. Schoenwolf GC, Smith JL (2000). Mechanisms of neurulation. [Review]. Methods Mol Biol, 136, 125-34.
  8. Schoenwolf GC, Smith JL (2000). Gastrulation and early mesodermal patterning in vertebrates. [Review]. Methods Mol Biol, 135, 113-25.
  9. Smith JL, Schoenwolf GC (1998). Getting organized: new insights into the organizer of higher vertebrates. [Review]. Curr Top Dev Biol, 40, 79-110.
  10. Smith JL, Schoenwolf GC (1997 Nov). Neurulation: coming to closure. [Review]. Trends Neurosci, 20(11), 510-7.
  11. Schoenwolf GC, Garcia-Martinez V (1995). Primitive-streak origin and state of commitment of cells of the cardiovascular system in avian and mammalian embryos. [Review]. Cell Mol Biol Res, 41(4), 233-40.
  12. Schoenwolf GC (1994). Formation and patterning of the avian neuraxis: one dozen hypotheses. [Review]. Ciba Found Symp, 181, 25-38; discussion 38-50.
  13. Schoenwolf GC, Alvarez IS (1992). Role of cell rearrangement in axial morphogenesis. [Review]. Curr Top Dev Biol, 27, 129-73.
  14. Schoenwolf GC (1991). Cell movements driving neurulation in avian embryos. [Review]. Development, Suppl 2, 157-68.
  15. Schoenwolf GC, Smith JL (1990 Jun). Mechanisms of neurulation: traditional viewpoint and recent advances. [Review]. Development, 109(2), 243-70.
  16. Sulik, KK, GC Schoenwolf (1985-01-01). Highlights of craniofacial morphogenesis, as revealed by scanning electron microscopy. [Review]. Scan Electron Microsc, IV, 1735-1752.
  17. Schoenwolf, GC (1983-01-01). The chick ephiblast: A model for examining epithelial morphogenesis. [Review]. Scan Electron Microsc, III, 1371-1385.
  18. Schoenwolf, GC (1982-01-01). On the morphogenesis of the early rudiments of the developing central nervous system. [Review]. Scan Electron Microsc, I, 289-308.

Book

  1. Schoenwolf, GC and Mathews, WW (2003-01-01). Atlas of Descriptive Embryology, 6th Edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
  2. Schoenwolf, GC (2001-01-01). Laboratory Studies of Vertebrate and Invertebrate Embryos. Guide and Atlas of Descriptive and Experimental Developmental, 8th Edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
  3. Mathews, WW and GC Schoenwolf (1998-01-01). Atlas of Descriptive Embryology, 5th Edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
  4. Schoenwolf, GC (1995-01-01). Laboratory Studies of Vertebrate and Invertebrate Embryos. Guide and Atlas of Descriptive and Experimental Development, 7th Edition. Englewood, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
  5. Schoenwolf, GC, RL Watterson (1989-01-01). Laboratory Studies of Chick, Pig, and Frog Embryos. Guide and Atlas of Vertebrate Embryology, 6th Edition. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co.
  6. Schoenwolf, GC (1986-01-01). Scanning Electron Microscopy Studies of Embryogenesis. Chicago, Illinois: Scanning Electron Microscopy, Inc.
  7. Watterson, RL, GC Schoenwolf (1984-01-01). Laboratory Studies of Chick, Pig, and Frog Embryos, Guide and Atlas of Vertebrate Embryology, 5 Edition. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co.
  8. Watterson, RL, GC Schoenwolf, RM Sweeney (1979-01-01). Laboratory Studies of Chick, Pig, and Frog Embryos, 4th Edition. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Burgess Publishing co.

Book Chapter

  1. Lawson, A, S Lewin, GC Schoenwolf (2003-01-01). Neural Tube. In J. Opitz, G. Neri, S. Lewin (Eds.), Human Development and Malformations. Evolutionary, Genetic, and Morphogenetic Perspectives. New York, In press: John Wiley and Sons.
  2. Ladher, RK and GC Schoenwolf (2003-01-01). Neural Induction. In M. Jacobson and M. Rao (Eds.), Development Neurobiology, 4th Edition. New York, In press: Plenum Presss.
  3. Dias, M, GC Schoenwolf (2001-01-01). The molecular biology of early neural development. In D.L. McLone, A.E. Marlin, D.H. Reigel, R.M. Scott, M.L. Walker, P. Steinbok, W.R. Cheek (Eds.), Pediatric Neurosurgery. Surgery of the Developing Nervous System 4th Edition (pp. 73-86). W.B. Saunders Co., Publisher.
  4. Tam PPL, Goldman D, Camus A, Schoenwolf GC (2000). Early events of somitogenesis in higher vertebrates: Allocation of precursor cells at gastrulation and the organization of a meristic pattern in the paraxial mesoderm. In Ordahl CP (Ed.), Current Topics in Development Biology (47, pp. 1-32). New York: Academic Press.
  5. Inagaki, T, GC Schoenwolf, Y Yamanouchi, K Kawamoto (1999-01-01). Experimental analysis: The cause of neural tube defects and the Chiari II type malformation and the important role for normal neurulation in their prevention. In S. Matsumoto and H. Sato (Eds.), Spina Bifida (pp. 245-249). Tokyo: Springer-Verlag.
  6. Schoenwolf, GC (1999-01-01). The avian embryo: A model for descriptive and experimental embryology. In S.A. Moody (Ed.), Cell Lineage and Fate Determination (pp. 429-437). New York: Academic Press.
  7. Tam, PPL and GC Schoenwolf (1999-01-01). Cardiac fate maps: Lineage allocation, morphogenetic movement and cell commitment. In R.P. Harvey and N. Rosenthal (Eds.), Heart Development (pp. 3-18). New York: Academic Press.
  8. Schoenwolf, GC (1997-01-01). Reptiles and Birds. In S.F. Gilbert, A.M. Raunio (Eds.), Embryology: Constructing the Organism (pp. 437-458). Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates, Inc.
  9. Darnell, DK and GC Schoenwolf (1996-01-01). Modern techniques for cell labeling in avian and murine embryos. In G.P. Daston (Ed.), Molecular and Cellular Methods in Developmental Toxicology (pp. 231-273). Boca Raton, Florida.
  10. Schoenwolf, GC (1991-01-01). Cell movements in the epiblast during gastrulation and neurulation in avian embryos. In Keller, R.E., W. Clark, Jr., F. Griffin (Eds.), Gastrulation: Movements, Patterns, and Molecules, Bodega Marine Laboratory Marine Series (3, pp. 1-28). New York: Plenum Press.
  11. Schoenwolf, GC (1991-01-01). Neurepithelial cell behavior during avian neurulation. In J. Gerhart (Ed.), Cell- Cell Interactions in Early Development, 49th Symposium of the Society for Developmental Biology (pp. 63-78). New York: Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  12. Schoenwolf, GC (1991-01-01). Cell movements in the epiblast during gastrulation and neurulation in avian embryos. In Keller, R.E., W. Clark, Jr., F. Griffin (Eds.), Gastrulation: Movements, Patterns, and Molecules, Bodega Marine Laboratory Marine Series (3, pp. 1-28). New York: Plenum Press.
  13. Schoenwolf, GC, JL Smith (1990-01-01). Epithlial cell wedging: A fundamental cell behavior contributing to hinge point formation during epithelial morphogenesis. In R.E. Keller, D. Fristrom, (Eds.), Control of Morphogenesis by Specific Cell Behaviors Seminars in Development Biology (1, pp. 325-334). London: W.B. Saunders Co.

Case Report

  1. Bleyl SB, Byrne JL, South ST, Dries DC, Stevenson DA, Rope AF, Vianna-Morgante AM, Schoenwolf GC, Kivlin JD, Brothman A, Carey JC (2007 Dec 1). Brachymesomelic dysplasia with Peters anomaly of the eye results from disruptions of the X chromosome near the SHOX and SOX3 genes. Am J Med Genet A, 143A(23), 2785-95.

Editorial

  1. Schoenwolf GC (2005 Oct). Lost in (color) space? Dev Dyn, 234(2), 243.
  2. Schoenwolf GC (2004 Nov). DD achieves Zen. Dev Dyn, 231(3), 461.
  3. Schoenwolf GC (2004 Sep). A special focus on the scientific contributions of Ursula K. Abbott and avian developmental genetics. Dev Dyn, 231(1), 1-3.
  4. Antin PB, Schoenwolf GC, Olsen NA (2004 Jul). A bigger bang for your buck: enhanced access to your chick data. Dev Dyn, 230(3), 391.

Abstract

  1. G C Schoenwolf (1996-01-01). 1996 Senate Testimony on FY '96 Biomedical Funding [Abstract]. Congressional Record, 142.