Karen C. Schliep, PhD, MSPH

Research Interests

  • Reproductive & Perinatal Epidemiology
  • Life Course Epidemiology
  • Biopsychosocial Mechanisms of Women's Health and Illness Using Time-Varying Covariates Across the Lifespan


Lab Website


  • English

Academic Information

  • Departments: Family & Preventive Medicine - Assistant Professor
  • Divisions: Public Health

Academic Bio

Karen Schliep, PhD, MSPH is an assistant professor in the Division of Public Health. She completed her bachelor's degrees in English from Carleton College (Northfield, MN) and Biology from the University of Utah and her MSPH and PhD in Public Health from the University of Utah. Dr. Schliep completed her pre-doctoral and post-doctoral fellowship at the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development (NICHD) Epidemiology Branch, where she served as an integral team member of several longitudinal studies including the BioCycle Study, the Endometriosis: Natural History, Diagnosis, and Outcomes (ENDO) Study, and the Effects of Aspirin on Gestation and Reproduction (EAGeR) Trial.

Dr. Schliep's research focuses on exploring the impact of diet, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors on female and male endocrinology and reproductive health; and understanding the short-and long-term consequences of abnormal reproductive function. Her overarching goal is to inform effective and individually tailored interventions for couples of reproductive age, which in turn may provide improved wellbeing and economic benefits for future generations.

Education History

Type School Degree
Research Fellow Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Epidemiology Branch
Postdoctoral Research Fellow
Doctoral Training University of Utah
Public Health
Research Fellow Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Epidemiology Branch
Research Fellow
Graduate Training University of Utah
Public Health
Undergraduate University of Utah
Biology; Minor: Chemistry
Undergraduate Carleton College

Global Impact


Description Country
Risk Communication: Lessons Learned from Prior Outbreaks. The MERS-EBOLA Symposium. Hanyang University, Seoul, South Korea. Korea

Selected Publications

Journal Article

  1. Schliep KC, Ju S, Foster NL, Smith KR, Varner MV, Ostbye T, Tshanz J (2021). How good are medical and death records for identifying dementia? Alzheimers Dement.
  2. Polinski KJ, Purdue-Smithe A, Robinson SL, Zhao SK, Schliep KC, Silver RM, Guan W, Schisterman EF, Mumford SL, Yeung EH (2021). Maternal caffeine intake and DNA methylation in newborn cord blood. Am J Clin Nutr.
  3. Najmabadi SSchliep KC, Simonsen SE, Porucznik CA, Egger MJStanford JB (2021). Cervical mucus patterns and the fertile window in women without known subfertility: a pooled analysis of three cohorts.  . Hum Reprod, 36(7), 1784-1795.
  4. Purdue-Smithe AC, Kim K, Nobles C, Schisterman EF, Schliep KC, Perkins NJ, Sjaarda LA, Freeman JR, Robinson SL, Radoc JG, Mills JL, Silver RM, Ye A, Mumford SL (2021). The role of maternal preconception vitamin D status in human offspring sex ratio. 2021 May 13;12(1):2789. doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-23083-2. PMID: 33986298; PMCID: PMC8119683. Nat Commun, 12(1), 2789.
  5. Lynch KE, Viernes B, Schliep KC, Gatsby E, Alba PR, DuVall SL, Blosnich JR (2021). Variation in sexual orientation documentation in a national electronic health record system. LGBT Health, 8(3), 201-208.
  6. Koric A, Singh B, VanDerslice JA, Stanford JB, Rogers CR, Egan DT, Agyemang DO, Schliep K (2021). Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Postpartum Depression Symptoms: A Population-Based Cohort Study. Am J Obstet Gynecol.
  7. Schliep KC, Feldkamp ML, Hanson HA, Hollingshaus M, Fraser A, Smith KR, Panushka KA, Varner MW (May 2021). Paternal and grandmaternal age and Down syndrome: matched case-control study, 1995–2015. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol, 35(3), :281-291.
  8. Lynch KE, Gatsby E, Viernes B, Schliep KC, Whitcomb BW, Alba PR, DuVall SL, Blosnich JR (2020). Evaluation of suicide mortality among sexual minority US Veterans, 2000-2017. JAMA Netw Open, 3(12), e2031357.
  9. Hu Q, Lee J, Nelson J, Harris M, Ess RH, Rogers CR, Sanders J, VanDerslice J, Stanford JB, Schliep KC (2020). The association between preconception body mass index and subfertility among women: Findings from Utah’s Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System survey (2012–2015). Utah Womens Health Rev, 2020.
  10. Morgan N, Christensen K, Skedros G, Kim S, Schliep K (2020). Life stressors, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and preterm birth. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol, 22, 1-9.
  11. Thiesset HF, Schliep KC, Stokes SM, Valentin VL, Gren LH, Porucznik CA, Huang LC (2020). Opioid misuse and dependence screening practices prior to surgery. J Surg Res, 252, 200-205.
  12. Stanford JB, Schliep KC, Chang CP, OSullivan JP, Porucznik CA (2020). Comparison of woman-picked, expert-picked and computer-picked Peak Day of cervical mucus with blinded urine luteinizing hormone surge for concurrent identification of ovulation. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol, 34(2), 105-113.
  13. Najmabadi S, Schliep KC, Simonsen SE, Porucznik CA, Egger MJ, Stanford JB (May 2020). Menstrual bleeding, cycle length, and follicular and luteal phase lengths in women without known subfertility: a pooled analysis of 3 cohorts. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol, 34(3), 318-327.
  14. Byun J, Peterson CM, Backonja U, Taylor RN, Stanford JB, Allen-Brady KL, Smith KR, Louis GMB, Schliep KC (2020). Adiposity and Endometriosis Severity and Typology. J Minim Invasive Gynecol, 27(7), 1516-1523.
  15. Michels KA, Mendola P, Schliep KC, Yeung EH, Ye A, Dunietz GL, Wactawski-Wende J, Kim K, Freeman JR, Schisterman EF, Mumford SL (February 2020). The influences of sleep duration, chronotype, and nightwork on the ovarian cycle. Chronobiol Int, 37(2), 260-271.
  16. Schliep KC, Mumford SL, Silver RM, Wilcox B, Radin RG, Perkins NJ, Galai N, Park J, Kim K, Sjaarda LA, Plowden T, Schisterman EF (November 2019). Preconception perceived stress alters reproductive hormones and leads to longer time to pregnancy. Epidemiology, Supplement 12, S76-S84.
  17. Russo LM, Whitcomb BW, Freeman JR, Mumford SL, Sjaarda LA, Perkins NJ, Schliep KC, Grewal J, Silver RM, Schisterman EF (March 2020). Physical activity and incidence of subclinical and clinical pregnancy loss: a secondary analysis in the EAGeR randomized trial. Fertil Steril, 113(3), 601-608.
  18. Park J, Stanford JB, Porucznik CA, Christensen K, Schliep KC (December 2019). Daily perceived stress and time to pregnancy: A prospective cohort study of women trying to conceive. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 110, 104446.
  19. Schliep KC, Denhalter D, Gren LH, Panushka KA, Singh TP, Varner MW (June 2019). Factors in the Hospital Experience Associated with Postpartum Breastfeeding Success. Breastfeed Med, 14(5), 334-341.
  20. Cannon-Albright LA, Foster NL, Schliep K, Farnham JM, Teerlink CC, Kaddas H, Tschanz J, Corcoran C, Kauwe JSK (November 2019).  Relative risk for Alzheimer disease based on complete family history. Neurology, 92(15), 1745-1753.
  21. Hemmert R, Schliep KC, Willis S, Peterson CM, Louis GB, Allen-Brady K, Simonsen SE, Stanford JB, Byun J, Smith KR (January 2019). Modifiable life style factors and risk for incident endometriosis. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol, 33(1), 19-25.
  22. Kim K, Wactawski-Wende J, Michels KA, Schliep KC, Plowden TC, Chaljub EN, Mumford SL (2018). Dietary minerals, reproductive hormone levels and sporadic anovulation: associations in healthy women with regular menstrual cycles. Br J Nutr, 120(1), 81-89.
  23. Radin RG, Sjaarda LA, Silver RM, Nobles CJ, Mumford SL, Perkins NJ, Wilcox BD, Pollack AZ, Schliep KC, Plowden TC, Schisterman EF (2018). C-Reactive protein in relation to fecundability and anovulation among eumenorrheic women. Fertil Steril, 109(2), 232-239.e1.
  24. Michels KA, Wactawski-Wende J, Mills JL, Schliep KC, Gaskins AJ, Yeung EH, Kim K, Plowden TC, Sjaarda LA, Chaljub EN, Mumford SL (2017). Folate, homocysteine and the ovarian cycle among healthy regularly menstruating women. Hum Reprod, 32(8), 1743-1750.
  25. Schliep KC, Chen Z, Stanford JB, Xie Y, Mumford SL, Hammoud AO, Boiman Johnstone E, Dorais JK, Varner MW, Buck Louis GM, Peterson CM (2017). Endometriosis diagnosis and staging by operating surgeon and expert review using multiple diagnostic tools: an inter-rater agreement study. BJOG, 124(2), 220-229.
  26. Schliep KC (2016). Interpregnancy interval and preterm birth: correlation versus causation debate continued. BJOG, 123(12), 2018.
  27. Buck Louis GM, Backonja U, Schliep KC, Sun L, Peterson CM, Chen Z (2016). Women's Reproductive History Before the Diagnosis of Incident Endometriosis. J Womens Health (Larchmt), 25(10), 1021-1029.
  28. Schliep KC, Mumford SL, Johnstone EB, Peterson CM, Sharp HT, Stanford JB, Chen Z, Backonja U, Wallace ME, Buck Louis GM (2016). Sexual and physical abuse and gynecologic disorders. Hum Reprod, 31(8), 1904-12.
  29. Theilen LH, Fraser A, Hollingshaus MS, Schliep KC, Varner MW, Smith KR, Esplin MS (2016). All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality After Hypertensive Disease of Pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol, 128(2), 238-44.
  30. Mumford SL, Silver RM, Sjaarda LA, Wactawski-Wende J, Townsend JM, Lynch AM, Galai N, Lesher LL, Faraggi D, Perkins NJ, Schliep KC, Zarek SM, Schisterman EF (2016). A randomized clinical trial of preconception low dose aspirin and pregnancy loss. Hum Reprod, 31(2016), 657-65.
  31. Schliep KC, Schisterman EF, Wactawski-Wende J, Perkins NJ, Radin RG, Zarek SM, Mitchell EM, Sjaarda LA, Mumford SL (2016). Serum caffeine and paraxanthine concentrations and menstrual cycle function: correlations with beverage intakes and associations with race, reproductive hormones, and anovulation in the BioCycle Study. Am J Clin Nutr, 104(1), 155-63.
  32. Johnson KA, Sjaarda LA, Mumford SL, Garbose RA, Schliep KC, Mattison D, Perkins NJ, Wactawski-Wende J, Schisterman EF (2016). Patterns and prevalence of medication use across the menstrual cycle among healthy, reproductive aged women. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 25(6), 618-27.
  33. Schliep KC, Mumford SL, Sjaarda LA, Schisterman EF (2016). In Reply. Obstet Gynecol, 127(6), 1171.
  34. Gorczyca AM, Sjaarda LA, Mitchell EM, Perkins NJ, Schliep KC, Wactawski-Wende J, Mumford SL (2016). Changes in macronutrient, micronutrient, and food group intakes throughout the menstrual cycle in healthy, premenopausal women. Eur J Nutr, 55(3), 1181-8.
  35. Zarek SM, Mitchell EM, Sjaarda LA, Mumford SL, Silver RM, Stanford JB, Galai N, Schliep KC, Radin RG, Plowden TC, DeCherney AH, Schisterman EF (2016). Antimullerian hormone and pregnancy loss from the Effects of Aspirin in Gestation and Reproduction trial. Fertil Steril, 105(4), 946-952.e2.
  36. Shimony MK, Schliep KC, Schisterman EF, Ahrens KA, Sjaarda LA, Rotman Y, Perkins NJ, Pollack AZ, Wactawski-Wende J, Mumford SL (2016). The relationship between sugar-sweetened beverages and liver enzymes among healthy premenopausal women: a prospective cohort study. Eur J Nutr, 55(2), 569-576.
  37. Mumford SL, Chavarro JE, Zhang C, Perkins NJ, Sjaarda LA, Pollack AZ, Schliep KC, Michels KA, Zarek SM, Plowden TC, Radin RG, Messer LC, Frankel RA, Wactawski-Wende J (2016). Dietary fat intake and reproductive hormone concentrations and ovulation in regularly menstruating women. Am J Clin Nutr, 103(3), 868-77.
  38. Mumford SL, Silver RM, Sjaarda LA, Wactawski-Wende J, Townsend JM, Lynch AM, Galai N, Lesher LL, Faraggi D, Perkins NJ, Schliep KC, Zarek SM, Schisterman EF (2016). Expanded findings from a randomized controlled trial of preconception low-dose aspirin and pregnancy loss. Hum Reprod, 31(3), 657-65.
  39. Schliep KC, Mitchell EM, Mumford SL, Radin RG, Zarek SM, Sjaarda L, Schisterman EF (2016). Trying to Conceive After an Early Pregnancy Loss: An Assessment on How Long Couples Should Wait. Obstet Gynecol, 127(2), 204-12.
  40. Mumford SL, Browne RW, Schliep KC, Schmelzer J, Plowden TC, Michels KA, Sjaarda LA, Zarek SM, Perkins NJ, Messer LC, Radin RG, Wactawski-Wende J, Schisterman EF (2016). Serum Antioxidants Are Associated with Serum Reproductive Hormones and Ovulation among Healthy Women. J Nutr, 146(1), 98-106.
  41. Porucznik CA, Cox KJ, Schliep KC, Wilkins DG, Stanford JB (2016). The Home Observation of Periconceptional Exposures (HOPE) study, a prospective cohort: aims, design, recruitment and compliance. Environ Health, 15(1), 67.
  42. Zarek SM, Mitchell EM, Sjaarda LA, Mumford SL, Silver RM, Stanford JB, Galai N, White MV, Schliep KC, DeCherney AH, Schisterman EF (2015). Is Anti-Mullerian Hormone Associated With Fecundability? Findings From the EAGeR Trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 100(11), 4215-21.
  43. Schliep KC, Zarek SM, Schisterman EF, Wactawski-Wende J, Trevisan M, Sjaarda LA, Perkins NJ, Mumford SL (2015). Alcohol intake, reproductive hormones, and menstrual cycle function: a prospective cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr, 102(4), 933-42.
  44. Schliep KC, Mumford SL, Peterson CM, Chen Z, Johnstone EB, Sharp HT, Stanford JB, Hammoud AO, Sun L, Buck Louis GM (2015). Pain typology and incident endometriosis. Hum Reprod, 30(10), 2427-38.
  45. Radin RG, Mumford SL, Silver RM, Lesher LL, Galai N, Faraggi D, Wactawski-Wende J, Townsend JM, Lynch AM, Simhan HN, Sjaarda LA, Perkins NJ, Zarek SM, Schliep KC, Schisterman EF (2015). Sex ratio following preconception low-dose aspirin in women with prior pregnancy loss. J Clin Invest, 125(9), 3619-26.
  46. Andrews MA, Schliep KC, Wactawski-Wende J, Stanford JB, Zarek SM, Radin RG, Sjaarda LA, Perkins NJ, Kalwerisky RA, Hammoud AO, Mumford SL (2015). Dietary factors and luteal phase deficiency in healthy eumenorrheic women. Hum Reprod, 30(8), 1942-51.
  47. Sjaarda LA, Schisterman EF, Schliep KC, Plowden T, Zarek SM, Yeung E, Wactawski-Wende J, Mumford SL (2015). Dietary Carbohydrate Intake Does Not Impact Insulin Resistance or Androgens in Healthy, Eumenorrheic Women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 100(8), 2979-86.
  48. Matyas RA, Mumford SL, Schliep KC, Ahrens KA, Sjaarda LA, Perkins NJ, Filiberto AC, Mattison D, Zarek SM, Wactawski-Wende J, Schisterman EF (2015). Effects of over-the-counter analgesic use on reproductive hormones and ovulation in healthy, premenopausal women. Hum Reprod, 30(7), 1714-23.
  49. Schisterman EF, Mumford SL, Schliep KC, Sjaarda LA, Stanford JB, Lesher LL, Wactawski-Wende J, Lynch AM, Townsend JM, Perkins NJ, Zarek SM, Tsai MY, Chen Z, Faraggi D, Galai N, Silver RM (2015). Preconception low dose aspirin and time to pregnancy: findings from the effects of aspirin in gestation and reproduction randomized trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 100(5), 1785-91.
  50. Wong LF, Schliep KC, Silver RM, Mumford SL, Perkins NJ, Ye A, Galai N, Wactawski-Wende J, Lynch AM, Townsend JM, Faraggi D, Schisterman EF (2015). The effect of a very short interpregnancy interval and pregnancy outcomes following a previous pregnancy loss. Am J Obstet Gynecol, 212(3), 375.e1-11.
  51. Schliep KC, Mumford SL, Vladutiu CJ, Ahrens KA, Perkins NJ, Sjaarda LA, Kissell KA, Prasad A, Wactawski-Wende J, Schisterman EF (2015). Perceived stress, reproductive hormones, and ovulatory function: a prospective cohort study. Epidemiology, 26(2), 177-84.
  52. Schliep KC, Mumford SL, Ahrens KA, Hotaling JM, Carrell DT, Link M, Hinkle SN, Kissell K, Porucznik CA, Hammoud AO (2015). Effect of male and female body mass index on pregnancy and live birth success after in vitro fertilization. Fertil Steril, 103(2), 388-95.
  53. Prasad A, Schisterman EF, Schliep KC, Ahrens KA, Sjaarda LA, Perkins NJ, Matyas R, Wactawski-Wende J, Mumford SL (2014). Depressive symptoms and their relationship with endogenous reproductive hormones and sporadic anovulation in premenopausal women. Ann Epidemiol, 24(12), 920-4.
  54. Lynch KE, Mumford SL, Schliep KC, Whitcomb BW, Zarek SM, Pollack AZ, Bertone-Johnson ER, Danaher M, Wactawski-Wende J, Gaskins AJ, Schisterman EF (2014). Assessment of anovulation in eumenorrheic women: comparison of ovulation detection algorithms. Fertil Steril, 102(2), 511-518.e2.
  55. Prasad A, Mumford SL, Buck Louis GM, Ahrens KA, Sjaarda LA, Schliep KC, Perkins NJ, Kissell KA, Wactawski-Wende J, Schisterman EF (2014). Sexual activity, endogenous reproductive hormones and ovulation in premenopausal women. Horm Behav, 66(2), 330-8.
  56. Sjaarda LA, Mumford SL, Kissell K, Schliep KC, Hammoud AO, Perkins NJ, Weck J, Wactawski-Wende J, Schisterman EF (2014). Increased androgen, anti-Mullerian hormone, and sporadic anovulation in healthy, eumenorrheic women: a mild PCOS-like phenotype? J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 99(6), 2208-16.
  57. Schliep KC, Mumford SL, Hammoud AO, Stanford JB, Kissell KA, Sjaarda LA, Perkins NJ, Ahrens KA, Wactawski-Wende J, Mendola P, Schisterman EF (2014). Luteal phase deficiency in regularly menstruating women: prevalence and overlap in identification based on clinical and biochemical diagnostic criteria. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 99(6), E1007-14.
  58. Ahrens K, Mumford SL, Schliep KC, Kissell KA, Perkins NJ, Wactawski-Wende J, Schisterman EF (2014). Serum leptin levels and reproductive function during the menstrual cycle. Am J Obstet Gynecol, 210(3), 248.e1-9.
  59. Ahrens KA, Vladutiu CJ, Mumford SL, Schliep KC, Perkins NJ, Wactawski-Wende J, Schisterman EF (2014). The effect of physical activity across the menstrual cycle on reproductive function. Ann Epidemiol, 24(2), 127-34.
  60. Porucznik CA, Cox KJ, Schliep KC, Stanford JB (2014). Pilot test and validation of the peak day method of prospective determination of ovulation against a handheld urine hormone monitor. BMC Womens Health, 14, 4.
  61. Kissell KA, Danaher MA, Schisterman EF, Wactawski-Wende J, Ahrens KA, Schliep KC, Perkins NJ, Sjaarda LA, Mumford SL (2014). Variation in Serum anti-Müllerian Hormone throughout Ovulatory and Sporadic Anovulatory Cycles in Eumenorrheic Women. Hum Reprod, 29(8), 1764-72.
  62. Filiberto AC, Mumford SL, Pollack AZ, Zhang C, Yeung EH, Schliep KC, Perkins NJ, Wactawski-Wende J, Schisterman EF (2013). Usual dietary isoflavone intake and reproductive function across the menstrual cycle. Fertil Steril, 100(6), 1727-34.
  63. Schliep KC, Schisterman EF, Mumford SL, Perkins NJ, Ye A, Pollack AZ, Zhang C, Porucznik CA, VanDerslice JA, Stanford JB, Wactawski-Wende J (2013). Validation of different instruments for caffeine measurement among premenopausal women in the BioCycle study. Am J Epidemiol, 177(7), 690-9.
  64. Schliep KC, Schisterman EF, Mumford SL, Pollack AZ, Perkins NJ, Ye A, Zhang CJ, Stanford JB, Porucznik CA, Hammoud AO, Wactawski-Wende J (2013). Energy-containing beverages: reproductive hormones and ovarian function in the BioCycle Study. Am J Clin Nutr, 97(3), 621-30.
  65. Schliep KC, Stanford JB, Chen Z, Zhang B, Dorais JK, Boiman Johnstone E, Hammoud AO, Varner MW, Louis GM, Peterson CM (2012). Interrater and intrarater reliability in the diagnosis and staging of endometriosis. Obstet Gynecol, 120(1), 104-12.
  66. Schliep KC, Schisterman EF, Mumford SL, Pollack AZ, Zhang C, Ye A, Stanford JB, Hammoud AO, Porucznik CA, Wactawski-Wende J (2012). Caffeinated beverage intake and reproductive hormones among premenopausal women in the BioCycle Study. Am J Clin Nutr, 95(2), 488-97.
  67. Tham E, Schliep K, Stanford J (2012). Outcomes of Natural Procreative Technology (NPT) in the Treatment of Infertility and Recurrent Miscarriage. Can Fam Physician, 58(5), e267-e274.
  68. Nassaralla CL, Stanford JB, Daly KD, Schneider M, Schliep KC, Fehring RJ (2011). Characteristics of the menstrual cycle after discontinuation of oral contraceptives. J Womens Health (Larchmt), 20(2), 169-77.
  69. Schliep K, Nanney M, Coffrin K, Anderson D (2010). Applying the Alliance for a Healthier Generation guidelines for competitive foods and beverages in Utah schools. 15.
  70. George DB, Davidson DW, Schliep KC, Patrell-Kim LJ (2000). Microtopography of microbiotic crusts on the Colorado Plateau and the distribution of component organisms. West N Am Nat, 60, 343-54.

Book Chapter

  1. Mumford SL, Schliep KC, Prasad A, Schisterman EF (2014). The menstrual cycle and lipid levels. In Hollins-Martin C, van den Akker O, Martin C, Preedy VR (Eds.), Handbook of diet and nutrition in the menstrual cycle, periconception and fertility (pp. 239-54). Wageningen, The Netherlands: Wageningen Academic Publishers.


  1. Schliep KC (2020). Women’s reproductive lifespan and subsequent inflammatory profile, how to best measure reproductive lifespan and the need for baseline assessments. Am J Epidemiol, 189(7), 674-676.
  2. Schliep KC (November 2018). A life course approach to studying pelvic pain in women. . BJOG, 125(12), 1540.
  3. Schliep KC (July 2016). Invited Mini-Commentary: Interpregnancy interval and preterm birth: correlation versus causation debate continued. BJOG, 123(12), 2018.


  1. Schliep KC, Mumford SL, Sjaarda LA, Schisterman EF (2016). Invited Letter to the Editor: Authors' Response to Trying to Conceive After an Early Pregnancy Loss [Letter to the editor]. Obstet Gynecol, 127(6), 1171.
  2. Schliep K (2009). A call to provide multiple options for women in developing countries [Letter to the editor]. Fertil Steril, 92(2), e35.