Tom H. Greene, PhD

Chief, Division of Biostatistics


  • English

Academic Information

  • Departments: Family & Preventive Medicine - Adjunct Professor, Internal Medicine - Professor, Population Health Sciences - Professor
  • Divisions: Biostatistics, Epidemiology, Public Health

Academic Office Information

  • 801-213-3741
  • Williams Building
    Division of Epidemiology
    295 Chipeta Way
    Salt Lake City, UT 84108

Academic Bio

Dr. Tom Greene is chief of the Division of Biostatistics in the Department of Population Health Sciences, and a Professor in the Division of Epidemiology of the Department of Internal Medicine. He is also Director of the Population Health Research Foundation in the Utah Center for Clinical and Translational Science, and currently holds an H.A. and Edna Benning Endowed Chair. Dr. Greene received his PhD in Statistics from Cornell University in 1985, and worked as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Statistics at the University of Kentucky from 1985 to 1989. He then served as a statistician at Case Western University and the Cleveland Clinic Foundation from 1989 through 2006, where he was the lead statistician on a substantial number of multi-center clinical trials, primarily in the field of Nephrology. Dr. Greene was the acting head of the Cleveland Clinic’s Cancer Biostatistics Core for 2 years from 1991-1993. Dr. Greene moved to the University of Utah in 2006, where he founded the Study Design and Biostatistics Center and subsequently the Population Health Research Foundation.

Dr. Greene serves as the lead statistician on many research projects in collaboration with clinical and translational investigators across the University of Utah and elsewhere, and carries out methodological research in the areas of clinical trial design, causal inference, and validation of surrogate endpoints. Dr. Greene is also a member of the Cancer Biostatistics Resource, and is involved in the design and analysis of a sequential, multiple assignment, randomized trial to promote smoking cessation. He is particularly interested in the problem of integrating information from multiple surrogate and clinical endpoints to evaluate treatment efficacy in randomized clinical trials.

Education History

Type School Degree
Doctoral Training Cornell University
Statistics/ Mathematics and Operation Research Minor
Graduate Training Cornell University
Undergraduate University of Kentucky
Mathematics and Psychology

Selected Publications

Journal Article

  1. Cho ME, Hansen JL, Peters CB, Cheung AK, Greene T, Sauer BC (2019). An increased mortality risk is associated with abnormal iron status in diabetic and non-diabetic Veterans with predialysis chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int, 96(3), 750-760.
  2. Mahaffey KW, Jardine MJ, Bompoint S, Cannon CP, Neal B, Heerspink HJL, Charytan DM, Edwards R, Agarwal R, Bakris G, Bull S, Capuano G, de Zeeuw D, Greene T, Levin A, Pollock C, Sun T, Wheeler DC, Yavin Y, Zhang H, Zinman B, Rosenthal N, Brenner BM, Perkovic V (2019). Canagliflozin and Cardiovascular and Renal Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Chronic Kidney Disease in Primary and Secondary Cardiovascular Prevention Groups. Circulation, 140(9), 739-750.
  3. Beddhu S, Shen J, Cheung AK, Kimmel PL, Chertow GM, Wei G, Boucher RE, Chonchol M, Arman F, Campbell RC, Contreras G, Dwyer JP, Freedman BI, Ix JH, Kirchner K, Papademetriou V, Pisoni R, Rocco MV, Whelton PK, Greene T (2019). Implications of Early Decline in eGFR due to Intensive BP Control for Cardiovascular Outcomes in SPRINT. J Am Soc Nephrol, 30(8), 1523-1533.
  4. Vonesh E, Tighiouart H, Ying J, Heerspink HL, Lewis J, Staplin N, Inker L, Greene T (2019). Mixed-effects models for slope-based endpoints in clinical trials of chronic kidney disease. (Epub ahead of print) Stat Med.
  5. Greene T, Ying J, Vonesh EF, Tighiouart H, Levey AS, Coresh J, Herrick JS, Imai E, Jafar TH, Maes BD, Perrone RD, Del Vecchio L, Wetzels JFM, Heerspink HJL, Inker LA (2019). Performance of GFR Slope as a Surrogate Endpoint for Kidney Disease Progression in Clinical Trials: A Statistical Simulation. (Epub ahead of print) J Am Soc Nephrol.
  6. Inker LA, Heerspink HJL, Tighiouart H, Levey AS, Coresh J, Gansevoort RT, Simon AL, Ying J, Beck GJ, Wanner C, Floege J, Li PK, Perkovic V, Vonesh EF, Greene T (2019). GFR Slope as a Surrogate End Point for Kidney Disease Progression in Clinical Trials: A Meta-Analysis of Treatment Effects of Randomized Controlled Trials. (Epub ahead of print) J Am Soc Nephrol.
  7. Derington CG, Gums TH, Bress AP, Herrick JS, Greene TH, Moran AE, Weintraub WS, Kronish IM, Morisky DE, Trinkley KE, Saseen JJ, Reynolds K, Bates JT, Berlowitz DR, Chang TI, Chonchol M, Cushman WC, Foy CG, Herring CT, Katz LA, Krousel-Wood M, Pajewski NM, Tamariz L, King JB, SPRINT Research Group (2019). Association of Total Medication Burden With Intensive and Standard Blood Pressure Control and Clinical Outcomes: A Secondary Analysis of SPRINT. Hypertension, HYPERTENSIONAHA11912907.
  8. Rathi N, Whelton PK, Chertow GM, Cushman WC, Cheung AK, Wei G, Boucher R, Kimmel PL, Bress A, Kramer HJ, Al-Marji C, Greene T, Beddhu S (2019). Influence of prediabetes on the effects of intensive systolic blood pressure control on kidney events. (Epub ahead of print) Am J Hypertens.
  9. Perkovic V, Jardine MJ, Neal B, Bompoint S, Heerspink HJL, Charytan DM, Edwards R, Agarwal R, Bakris G, Bull S, Cannon CP, Capuano G, Chu PL, de Zeeuw D, Greene T, Levin A, Pollock C, Wheeler DC, Yavin Y, Zhang H, Zinman B, Meininger G, Brenner BM, Mahaffey KW, CREDENCE Trial Investigators (2019). Canagliflozin and Renal Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes and Nephropathy. N Engl J Med, 380(24), 2295-2306.
  10. Nkoy FL, Fassl BA, Wilkins VL, Johnson J, Unsicker EH, Koopmeiners KJ, Jensen A, Frazier M, Gaddis J, Malmgren L, Williams S, Oldroyd H, Greene T, Sheng X, Uchida DA, Maloney CG, Stone BL (2019). Ambulatory Management of Childhood Asthma Using a Novel Self-management Application. Pediatrics, 143(6).
  11. Zuk A, Palevsky PM, Fried L, Harrell FE Jr, Khan S, McKay DB, Devey L, Chawla L, de Caestecker M, Kaufman JS, Thompson BT, Agarwal A, Greene T, Okusa MD, Bonventre JV, Dember LM, Liu KD, Humphreys BD, Gossett D, Xie Y, Norton JM, Kimmel PL, Star RA (2018). Overcoming Translational Barriers in Acute Kidney Injury: A Report from an NIDDK Workshop. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol, 13(7), 1113-1123.
  12. Li L, Luo S, Hu B, Greene T (2017). Dynamic Prediction of Renal Failure Using Longitudinal Biomarkers in a Cohort Study of Chronic Kidney Disease. Stat Biosci, 9(2), 357-378.
  13. Gallicchio L, Miller SR, Kiefer J, Greene T, Zacur HA, Flaws JA (2015). The Associations Between Body Mass Index, Smoking, and Alcohol Intake with Ovarian Volume in Midlife Women. J Womens Health (Larchmt), 25(4), 409-15.
  14. Beckmann JT, Wylie JD, Potter MQ, Maak TG, Greene TH, Aoki SK (2015). Effect of Naproxen Prophylaxis on Heterotopic Ossification Following Hip Arthroscopy: A Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial. J Bone Joint Surg Am, 97(24), 2032-7.
  15. Thomas A, Redd A, Khader K, Leecaster M, Greene T, Samore M (2015). Efficient parameter estimation for models of healthcare-associated pathogen transmission in discrete and continuous time. Math Med Biol, 32(1), 79-98.
  16. Khader K, Leecaster M, Greene T, Samore M, Thomas A (2014). Improved hidden Markov model for nosocomial infections. Math Med Biol, 31(4), 338-52.
  17. Levey AS, Inker LA, Matsushita K, Greene T, Willis K, Lewis E, de Zeeuw D, Cheung AK, Coresh J (2014). GFR decline as an end point for clinical trials in CKD: a scientific workshop sponsored by the National Kidney Foundation and the US Food and Drug Administration. Am J Kidney Dis, 64(6), 821-35.
  18. Jones M, Ying J, Huttner B, Evans M, Maw M, Nielson C, Rubin MA, Greene T, Samore MH (2014). Relationships between the importation, transmission, and nosocomial infections of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: an observational study of 112 Veterans Affairs Medical Centers. Clin Infect Dis, 58(1), 32-9.
  19. Greene T, Joffe M, Hu B, Li L, Boucher K (2013). The balanced survivor average causal effect. Int J Biostat, 9(2), 291-306.
  20. Jones M, Ying J, Huttner B, Evans M, Maw M, Nielson C, Rubin MA, Greene T, Samore MH (2013). Relationships Between the Importation, Transmission, and Nosocomial Infections of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: An Observational Study of 112 Veterans Affairs Medical Centers. Clin Infect Dis.
  21. Hu B, Li L, Wang X, Greene T (2012). Nonparametric multistate representations of survival and longitudinal data with measurement error. Stat Med, 31(21), 2303-17.
  22. Mayer J, Greene T, Howell J, Ying J, Rubin MA, Trick WE, Samore MH, CDC Prevention Epicenters Program (2012). Agreement in classifying bloodstream infections among multiple reviewers conducting surveillance. Clin Infect Dis, 55(3), 364-70.
  23. Lewis EJ, Lewis JB, Greene T, Hunsicker LG, Berl T, Pohl MA, de Zeeuw D, Heerspink HL, Rohde RD, Atkins RC, Reutens AT, Packham DK, Raz I, Collaborative Study Group (2011). Sulodexide for kidney protection in type 2 diabetes patients with microalbuminuria: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Kidney Dis, 58(5), 729-36.
  24. Yan G, Greene T (2011). Statistical analysis and design for estimating accuracy in clinical-center classification of cause-specific clinical events in clinical trials. Clinical Trials, 8(5), 571-80.
  25. Kendrick J, Cheung AK, Kaufman JS, Greene T, Roberts WL, Smits G, Chonchol M, HOST Investigators (2011). FGF-23 associates with death, cardiovascular events, and initiation of chronic dialysis. J Am Soc Nephrol, 22(10), 1913-22.
  26. Leecaster M, Gesteland P, Greene T, Walton N, Gundlapalli A, Rolfs R, Byington C, Samore M (2011). Modeling the variations in pediatric respiratory syncytial virus seasonal epidemics. BMC Infect Dis, 11, 105.
  27. Kevin Rogers R, Stehlik J, Stoddard GJ, Greene T, Collins SP, Peacock WF, Maisel AD, Clopton P, Michaels AD (2009). Adjusting for clinical covariates improves the ability of B-type natriuretic peptide to distinguish cardiac from non-cardiac dyspnoea: a sub-study of HEARD-IT. Eur J Heart Fail, 11(11), 1043-9.
  28. Weinberg JM, Appel LJ, Bakris G, Gassman JJ, Greene T, Kendrick CA, Wang X, Lash J, Lewis JA, Pogue V, Thornley-Brown D, Phillips RA, African American Study of Hypertension and Kidney Disease Collaborative Research Group (2009). Risk of hyperkalemia in nondiabetic patients with chronic kidney disease receiving antihypertensive therapy. Arch Intern Med, 169(17), 1587-94.
  29. Joffe MM, Greene T (2008). Related causal frameworks for surrogate outcomes. Biometrics, 65(2), 530-8.
  30. Greene T, Daugirdas JT, Depner TA, Gotch F, Kuhlman M, Frequent Hemodialysis Network Study Group, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health (2009). Solute clearances and fluid removal in the frequent hemodialysis network trials. Am J Kidney Dis, 53(5), 835-44.
  31. Rubin MA, Mayer J, Greene T, Sauer BC, Hota B, Trick W, Jernigan JA, Samore MH (2008). An agent-based model for evaluating surveillance methods for catheter-related bloodstream infection. AMIA Annu Symp Proc, 631-5.
  32. Appel LJ, Wright JT Jr, Greene T, Kusek JW, Lewis JB, Wang X, Lipkowitz MS, Norris KC, Bakris GL, Rahman M, Contreras G, Rostand SG, Kopple JD, Gabbai FB, Schulman GI, Gassman JJ, Charleston J, Agodoa LY, African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension Collaborative Research Group (2008). Long-term effects of renin-angiotensin system-blocking therapy and a low blood pressure goal on progression of hypertensive chronic kidney disease in African Americans. Arch Intern Med, 168(8), 832-9.
  33. Garg AX, Greene T, Levin NW (2007). A well-conducted randomized trial that establishes no benefit of therapy is an important medical advance. Nephrol Dial Transplant, 23(1), 52-5.
  34. Samore MH, Shen S, Greene T, Stoddard G, Sauer B, Shinogle J, Nebeker J, Harbarth S (2007). A simulation-based evaluation of methods to estimate the impact of an adverse event on hospital length of stay. Med Care, 45(10 Supl 2), S108-15.
  35. Levey AS, Coresh J, Greene T, Marsh J, Stevens LA, Kusek JW, Van Lente F, Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (2007). Expressing the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation for estimating glomerular filtration rate with standardized serum creatinine values. Clin Chem, 53(4), 766-72.
  36. Suri RS, Garg AX, Chertow GM, Levin NW, Rocco MV, Greene T, Beck GJ, Gassman JJ, Eggers PW, Star RA, Ornt DB, Kliger AS, Frequent Hemodialysis Network Trial Group (2006). Frequent Hemodialysis Network (FHN) randomized trials: study design. Kidney Int, 71(4), 349-59.
  37. Norris K, Bourgoigne J, Gassman J, Hebert L, Middleton J, Phillips RA, Randall O, Rostand S, Sherer S, Toto RD, Wright JT Jr, Wang X, Greene T, Appel LJ, Lewis J, AASK Study Group (2006). Cardiovascular outcomes in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) Trial. Am J Kidney Dis, 48(5), 739-51.
  38. Menon V, Li L, Wang X, Greene T, Balakrishnan V, Madero M, Pereira AA, Beck GJ, Kusek JW, Collins AJ, Levey AS, Sarnak MJ (2006). Adiponectin and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. J Am Soc Nephrol, 17(9), 2599-606.
  39. Levey AS, Coresh J, Greene T, Stevens LA, Zhang YL, Hendriksen S, Kusek JW, Van Lente F, Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (2006). Using standardized serum creatinine values in the modification of diet in renal disease study equation for estimating glomerular filtration rate. Ann Intern Med, 145(4), 247-54.
  40. Stevens LA, Greene T, Levey AS (2006). Surrogate end points for clinical trials of kidney disease progression. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol, 1(4), 874-84.
  41. Stevens LA, Coresh J, Greene T, Levey AS (2006). Assessing kidney function--measured and estimated glomerular filtration rate. N Engl J Med, 354(23), 2473-83.
  42. Lash JP, Wang X, Greene T, Gadegbeku CA, Hall Y, Jones K, Kusek JW, Sika M, Unruh M (2006). Quality of life in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension: effects of blood pressure management. Am J Kidney Dis, 47(6), 956-64.
  43. Menon V, Sarnak MJ, Greene T, Wang X, Pereira AA, Beck GJ, Kusek JW, Selhub J, Collins AJ, Levey AS, Shlipak MG (2006). Relationship between homocysteine and mortality in chronic kidney disease. Circulation, 113(12), 1572-7.
  44. Lea J, Greene T, Hebert L, Lipkowitz M, Massry S, Middleton J, Rostand SG, Miller E, Smith W, Bakris GL (2005). The relationship between magnitude of proteinuria reduction and risk of end-stage renal disease: results of the African American study of kidney disease and hypertension. Arch Intern Med, 165(8), 947-53.
  45. Poggio ED, Wang X, Greene T, Van Lente F, Hall PM (2004). Performance of the modification of diet in renal disease and Cockcroft-Gault equations in the estimation of GFR in health and in chronic kidney disease. J Am Soc Nephrol, 16(2), 459-66.
  46. Ogiste JS, Nejat RJ, Rashid HH, Greene T, Gupta M (2003). The role of mannitol in alleviating renal injury during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. J Urol, 169(3), 875-7.
  47. Eknoyan G, Beck GJ, Cheung AK, Daugirdas JT, Greene T, Kusek JW, Allon M, Bailey J, Delmez JA, Depner TA, Dwyer JT, Levey AS, Levin NW, Milford E, Ornt DB, Rocco MV, Schulman G, Schwab SJ, Teehan BP, Toto R, Hemodialysis HEMO Study Group (2002). Effect of dialysis dose and membrane flux in maintenance hemodialysis. N Engl J Med, 347(25), 2010-9.
  48. Greene T (2001). A model for a proportional treatment effect on disease progression. Biometrics, 57(2), 354-60.
  49. Hebert LA, Kusek JW, Greene T, Agodoa LY, Jones CA, Levey AS, Breyer JA, Faubert P, Rolin HA, Wang SR (1997). Effects of blood pressure control on progressive renal disease in blacks and whites. Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study Group. Hypertension, 30(3 Pt 1), 428-35.
  50. Levey AS, Greene T, Schluchter MD, Cleary PA, Teschan PE, Lorenz RA, Molitch ME, Mitch WE, Siebert C, Hall PM (1993). Glomerular filtration rate measurements in clinical trials. Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study Group and the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. J Am Soc Nephrol, 4(5), 1159-71.
  51. Iglesias AA, Barry GF, Meyer C, Bloksberg L, Nakata PA, Greene T, Laughlin MJ, Okita TW, Kishore GM, Preiss J (1993). Expression of the potato tuber ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem, 268(2), 1081-6.
  52. Greene T, Ernhart CB (1991). Adjustment for cofactors in pediatric research. J Dev Behav Pediatr, 12(6), 378-85.
  53. Ernhart CB, Greene T (1990). Low-level lead exposure in the prenatal and early preschool periods: language development. Arch Environ Health, 45(6), 342-54.


  1. Greene T, Li L (2017). From Static to Dynamic Risk Prediction: Time Is Everything. Am J Kidney Dis, 69(4), 492-494.
  2. Cheung AK, Greene T (2009). Effect of membrane permeability on survival of hemodialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol, 20(3), 462-4.


  1. Beddhu S, Chertow GM, Cheung AK, Cushman WC, Greene T, Wei G, Boucher R, Whelton PK, SPRINT Research Group (2018). Response by Beddhu et al to Letters Regarding Article, "Influence of Baseline Diastolic Blood Pressure on Effects of Intensive Compared With Standard Blood Pressure Control". [Letter to the editor]. Circulation, 137(24), 2668-2669.
  2. Brown KA, Daneman N, Stevens V, Greene TH, Arora P (2016). Reply to Wolkewitz: When to Use Cumulative Risk-Based Versus Rate-Based Approaches in the Analysis of Hospital-Acquired Infection Risk Factors? That Depends on the Question. [Letter to the editor]. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol, 37(9), 1124-5.
  3. Joseph JV, Greene T (2007). Re: Standard versus limited pelvic lymph node dissection for prostate cancer in patients with a predicted probability of nodal metastasis greater than 1% K. Touijer, F. Rabbani, J. R. Otero, F. P. Secin, J. A. Eastham, P. T. Scardino And B. Guillonneau J Urol 2007; 178: 120-124. [Letter to the editor]. J Urol, 179(2), 789-90.


  1. Jones, M, Rubin, M, Greene, T, Leecaster, M, Spuhl, J, Nielson, C, Evans, M, Jain, R, Samore, M (2011). Comparing the Performance of Clinical History of MRSA vs. Active Surveillance at Individual and Hospital Ward Levels [Abstract]. Infectious Disease Society of America Conference, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
  2. Jones, M, Ying, J, Greene, T, Leecaster, M, Huttner, B, Mayer, J, Rubin, M, Samore, M (2011). Analysis of MRSA Transmission Dynamics in the Veterans Affairs System [Abstract]. Annual Scientific Meeting of The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America.
  3. Mayer J, Howell J, Weir CR, Rubin MA, Greene T, Samore MH (2011). Use of electronic reporting and annotations by Infection Preventionists to describe differences in the application of surveillance criteria. [Abstract]. Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America.
  4. Mayer J, Howell J, Greene T, Rubin M, Ray W, Nordberg B, Hayden C, Nechodom P, Samore M (2010). Assessing inter-rater reliability of surveillance decisions by infection preventionists [Abstract]. Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America.
  5. Lash JP, Gadegbeku C, Greene T, Hall Y, Jones K, Kusek JW, Sika M, Wang X for the AASK Study Group (2003). Longitudinal effects of blood pressure level and antihypertensive regimen on quality of life in the AASK Study. [Abstract]. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 14, 678A.
  6. Kusek JW, Agodoa L, Greene T, Jones C (1993). Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study Group.Comparison of decline of GFR in Blacks versus Non-Blacks in the MDRD Study [Abstract]. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 4, 253.