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Pediatric Research

frequency of imaging research poster

Frequency of imaging in infants with uretero-pelvic junction-like hydronephrosis

Anthony J. Schaeffer, MD, MPH, Neha R. Malhotra, MD, Glen A. Lau, MD, Patrick C. Cartwright, MD, Nora F. Fino, MS, Flory L. Nkoy, MD, MS, MPH, Mark D. Ebert, MD, Rachel Hess, MD, MS

University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA


hypo research poster

Closure of distal versus proximal urethrocutaneous fistulae after hypospadias repair

Austen D. Slade M.D., Neha M. Malhotra M.D., Anthony J. Schaeffer M.D., Patrick C. Cartwright M.D., Glen A. Lau M.D.

Salt Lake City, UT


Urethrocutaneous fistulae are the most common complication following hypospadias repair, and proximal hypospadias carry a nearly two-fold risk for fistula formation compared to distal. The impact of fistula location on success of repair has not been well studied. We hypothesized that repairs of distal fistulas would be more successful when compared to proximal fistulas and aimed to identify surgical factors that may affect these outcomes.  


Retrospective review of all patients undergoing repair of fistula at our institution from 2014 to 2017 following hypospadias repair. Data collected included location of fistula, size of fistula, type of magnification used, suture type, use of post-operative stent, number and type of interposition layers used. Univariate analysis was performed using chi-square tests for categorical variables, multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression.


During the study period 31 patients presented for fistula repair. There were 17 (54.8%) distal and 14 (45.2%) proximal fistulas. There was no difference in success for distal (70.6% successful) vs proximal (63.4%) fistula repair (p = 0.71). Proximal fistulae were not more likely to be stented (p=0.24) but were more likely to have had an interposition layer (p=0.02). Median age at initial repair was 7 months (IQR 5, mean 11.5 months). Median time from hypospadias repair to diagnosis of fistula was 7 months (IQR 11.5, mean 9.8 months).


Based on our data, proximal and distal fistulae after hypospadias repair have comparable rates of successful closure. Notably, proximal fistula repairs were more likely to utilize an interposition coverage layer than distal fistula repairs. Use of an interposition layer has previously been shown to decrease fistula formation after initial hypospadias repair, and this could also affect outcomes in fistula repair.

MACE poster

The effect of a multidisciplinary colorectal clinic on Malone antegrade continence enema (MACE) outcomes

Neha R. Malhotra, Glen A. Lau, Austen D. Slade, Zachary J. Kastenberg, Sarah Zobell, Michael D. Rollins, M. Chad Wallis

1University of Utah, Department of Surgery, Division of Urology

2University of Utah, Department of Surgery, Division of Pediatric Surgery


The Malone antegrade continence enema (MACE) allows patients to perform colonic irrigation, manage fecal incontinence and empty in a more predictable manner, improve social continence. Various technical modifications have improved outcomes and decreased complications. A critical component to success is regular follow-up and adherence to a bowel program; therefore, it has been suggested that a team approach to bowel management should be employed. We hypothesized that a multi-disciplinary colorectal clinic would improve surgical outcomes in patients with MACE.

Materials and Methods

A multi-disciplinary colorectal clinic (CRC) was implemented at our institution in 2011. This clinic, led by a general surgeon, is a collaborative effort between general surgeons, urologists, gastroenterologists and gynecologists and utilizes physicians, advanced practice providers and nurses as well as social workers and nutritionists. All patients undergoing MACE are eligible to follow in CRC, regardless of operating service. Patients undergoing MACE in the two years prior (2009, 2010) and the two years after (2011, 2012) were identified and a retrospective chart review was performed. Outcomes of patients who were followed in CRC were compared to those who did not follow in CRC (control group).  Univariate analysis was performed using chi-square tests for categorical variables. A small sample size precluded multivariate analysis. Mann-Whitney test was used to analyze non-parametric variables. Statistical significance was determined by a p value of < 0.05. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS Version 25 (IBM, Armonk, NY).


59 patients were identified in the four years prior to and after initiation of CRC; 35 (59.3%) patients were followed in CRC and 24 (40.7%) were not. Patients in CRC were more likely to have phone appointments (CRC median 3, control median 0; p =<0.01), but had comparable numbers of clinic visits (CRC median 4, control median 6; p = 0.17). There was no difference in post-operative ED visits (p = 0.09), unscheduled post-operative clinic visits (p = .90), early complications (p = 0.24), late complications (p = 0.93), or reoperations (p = .60; skin level revision p = 0.97, takedown p = 0.97, re-do MACE p = 0.40) in either cohort. Patients undergoing MACE by general surgery were more likely to be seen in the CRC than urology patients (14.3% of urology MACEs, 76.7% of general surgery MACEs; p < 0.01)


Our study did not show a difference in surgical outcomes with follow-up in a multidisciplinary colorectal clinic; this may have been due to limited sample size. Our results do show a significant increase in phone visits and a non-significant decrease in clinic visits. There was no difference in post-operative ED visits, patient phone calls or unscheduled visits. Further work is necessary to determine if increased phone follow-up with potentially decreased clinic visits improves patient satisfaction and decreases cost of care.


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