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The Lung Cancer Substudy (LCS) was an ongoing (1994-1999) observational cohort study of 5008 (87%) LHS-I participants.

The goal was to determine cancer incidence and mortality over a 5-to-8 year follow-up period beyond the end of LHS-I, and to relate cancer incidence (partially lung cancer) to genetic characteristics determined by analysis of DNA in stored white cells or constituents of serum or plasma specimens from blood samples taken at year 5 of LHS-I.

Follow-up in the LCS involved direct contact with participants every 6 months, usually by telephone, to determine: (1) any new diagnoses for cancer, (2) smoking status, and (3) any changes in addresses, phone numbers, or names of contact people.

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