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Selected Publications

Journal Article

  1. Raphael KL, Katz R, Larive B, Kendrick C, Isakova T, Sprague S, Wolf M, Raj DS, Fried LF, Gassman J, Hoofnagle A, Cheung AK, Ix JH (2023). Oral Sodium Bicarbonate and Bone Turnover in CKD: A Secondary Analysis of the BASE Pilot Trial. J Am Soc Nephrol, 35(1), 57-65. (Read full article)
  2. Azim A, Hu B, Gilligan S, Sarwal A, Hartsell S, Pandya V, Raphael KL (2023). How I Evaluate a High Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. (Read full article)
  3. Taparra K, Purdy M, Raphael KL (2023). From Ashes to Action - Indigenous Health Perspectives on the Lāhainā Fires. N Engl J Med, 389(17), 1543-1546. (Read full article)
  4. Pao AC, Shahzad SR, Song S, Ganesan C, Conti S, Leppert J, Cheung AK, Ix JH, Isakova T, Wolf M, Raj DS, Sprague SM, Fried LF, Gassman J, Fong P, Koike S, Raphael KL (2023). Response to Alkali Administration in Women and Men With and Without CKD. Kidney Med, 5(7), 100670. (Read full article)
  5. Melamed ML, Raphael KL (2023). Safety of Alkalinization in CKD. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol, 18(4), 433-434. (Read full article)
  6. Whitaker M, Aguirre MC, Gutierrez Chavez M, Beaulieu E, Arones YB, Gershenoff D, Hinton K, Klein N, Munezerou Uwizeye J, Napia E, Ramos C, Tavake-Pasi OF, Villalta J, Wolfsfeld C, Witte B, Maxfield E, Raphael K, Simmons DL, Clark L, Sher T, Smith TW, Baucom KJ (2023). Couple-based lifestyle intervention to prevent type 2 diabetes: protocol for a randomised pilot trial. BMJ Open, 13(2), e068623. (Read full article)
  7. Fong P, Wusirika R, Rueda J, Raphael KL, Rehman S, Stack M, de Mattos A, Gupta R, Michels K, Khoury FG, Kung V, Andeen NK (2022). Increased Rates of Supplement-Associated Oxalate Nephropathy During COVID-19 Pandemic. Kidney Int Rep, 7(12), 2608-2616. (Read full article)
  8. Uribarri J, Goldfarb DS, Raphael KL, Rein JL, Asplin JR (2022). Beyond the Urine Anion Gap: In Support of the Direct Measurement of Urinary Ammonium. Am J Kidney Dis, 80(5), 667-676. (Read full article)
  9. Bullen AL, Ascher SB, Scherzer R, Garimella PS, Katz R, Hallan SI, Cheung AK, Raphael KL, Estrella MM, Jotwani VK, Malhotra R, Seegmiller JC, Shlipak MG, Ix JH (2022). Markers of Kidney Tubular Secretion and Risk of Adverse Events in SPRINT Participants with CKD. J Am Soc Nephrol, 33(10), 1915-1926. (Read full article)
  10. Ascher SB, Shlipak MG, Katz R, Bullen AL, Scherzer R, Hallan SI, Cheung AK, Raphael KL, Estrella MM, Jotwani VK, Seegmiller JC, Ix JH, Garimella PS (2022). Estimated Kidney Tubular Secretion and Kidney, Cardiovascular, and Mortality Outcomes in CKD: The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial. Kidney Med, 4(12), 100546. (Read full article)
  11. Raphael KL (2022). Structural Racism in USRDS: A Native Hawaiian Perspective. Am J Kidney Dis, 80(3), 422. (Read full article)
  12. Ravikumar NPG, Pao AC, Raphael KL (2022). Acid-Mediated Kidney Injury Across the Spectrum of Metabolic Acidosis. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis, 29(4), 406-415. (Read full article)
  13. Kurella Tamura M, Gaussoin S, Pajewski NM, Zaharchuk G, Freedman BI, Rapp SR, Auchus AP, Haley WE, Oparil S, Kendrick J, Roumie CL, Beddhu S, Cheung AK, Williamson JD, Detre JA, Dolui S, Bryan RN, Nasrallah IM, SPRINT Research Group (2021). Kidney Disease, Hypertension Treatment, and Cerebral Perfusion and Structure. Am J Kidney Dis, 79(5), 677-687.e1. (Read full article)
  14. Azim A, Murray J, Beddhu S, Raphael KL (2022). Urinary Sulfate, Kidney Failure, and Death in CKD: The African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension. Kidney360, 3(7), 1183-1190. (Read full article)
  15. Gruzdys V, Cahoon K, Pearson L, Raphael KL (2022). Measurement of Urinary Ammonium Using a Commercially Available Plasma Ammonium Assay. Kidney360, 3(5), 926-932. (Read full article)
  16. Wang AA, Cai X, Srivastava A, Prasad PV, Sprague SM, Carr J, Wolf M, Ix JH, Block GA, Chonchol M, Raphael KL, Cheung AK, Raj DS, Gassman JJ, Rahsepar AA, Middleton JP, Fried LF, Sarnari R, Isakova T, Mehta R (2021). Abnormalities in Cardiac Structure and Function among Individuals with CKD: The COMBINE Trial. Kidney360, 3(2), 258-268. (Read full article)
  17. Kraut JA, Raphael KL (2021). Assessment of Acid-Base Status: Beyond Serum Bicarbonate. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol, 16(9), 1429-1431. (Read full article)
  18. Jamshidian MS, Larive B, Gassman J, Raphael KL, Chonchol MB, Ix JH, Ginsberg C (2021). Effect of Lanthanum Carbonate on Blood Pressure in CKD. Am J Kidney Dis, 78(2), 312-314. (Read full article)
  19. Malhotra R, Katz R, Jotwani V, Agarwal A, Cohen DL, Cushman WC, Ishani A, Killeen AA, Kitzman DW, Oparil S, Papademetriou V, Parikh CR, Raphael KL, Rocco MV, Tamariz LJ, Whelton PK, Wright JT Jr, Shlipak MG, Ix JH (2020). Estimated GFR Variability and Risk of Cardiovascular Events and Mortality in SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial). Am J Kidney Dis, 78(1), 48-56. (Read full article)
  20. SPRINT Research Group, Lewis CE, Fine LJ, Beddhu S, Cheung AK, Cushman WC, Cutler JA, Evans GW, Johnson KC, Kitzman DW, Oparil S, Rahman M, Reboussin DM, Rocco MV, Sink KM, Snyder JK, Whelton PK, Williamson JD, Wright JT Jr, Ambrosius WT (2021). Final Report of a Trial of Intensive versus Standard Blood-Pressure Control. N Engl J Med, 384(20), 1921-1930. (Read full article)
  21. Al-Kindi SG, Brook RD, Bhatt U, Brauer M, Cushman WC, Hanson HA, Kostis J, Lash JP, Paine R 3rd, Raphael KL, Rapp S, Tamariz L, Wright JT Jr, Rajagopalan S, SPRINT Research Group (2021). The Benefits of Intensive Versus Standard Blood Pressure Treatment According to Fine Particulate Matter Air Pollution Exposure: A Post Hoc Analysis of SPRINT. Hypertension, 77(3), 813-822. (Read full article)
  22. Melamed ML, Raphael KL (2021). Metabolic Acidosis in CKD: A Review of Recent Findings. Kidney Med, 3(2), 267-277. (Read full article)
  23. Raphael KL, Kraut JA (2020). Assessing Acid-Base Status in Patients With CKD: Does Measurement of Blood pH Matter? Am J Kidney Dis, 77(1), 9-11. (Read full article)
  24. Aitaoto N, Raphael KL (2020). Haemodialysis in Samoa: A model for other Pacific nations. Lancet Reg Health West Pac, 6, 100071. (Read full article)
  25. Xiang J, Morgenstern H, Li Y, Steffick D, Bragg-Gresham J, Panapasa S, Raphael KL, Robinson BM, Herman WH, Saran R (2020). Incidence of ESKD Among Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders Living in the 50 US States and Pacific Island Territories. Am J Kidney Dis, 76(3), 340-349.e1. (Read full article)
  26. Dobre M, Pajewski NM, Beddhu S, Chonchol M, Hostetter TH, Li P, Rahman M, Servilla K, Weiner DE, Wright JT, Raphael KL, SPRINT Research Group (2019). Serum bicarbonate and cardiovascular events in hypertensive adults: results from the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial. Nephrol Dial Transplant, 35(8), 1377-1384. (Read full article)
  27. Srivastava A, Cai X, Lee J, Li W, Larive B, Kendrick C, Gassman JJ, Middleton JP, Carr J, Raphael KL, Cheung AK, Raj DS, Chonchol MB, Fried LF, Block GA, Sprague SM, Wolf M, Ix JH, Prasad PV, Isakova T (2020). Kidney Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Change in eGFR in Individuals with CKD. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol, 15(6), 776-783. (Read full article)
  28. Ginsberg C, Katz R, Chonchol MB, Bullen AL, Raphael KL, Zhang WR, Ambrosius WT, Bates JT, Neyra JA, Killeen AA, Punzi H, Shlipak MG, Ix JH (2020). The Effects of Intensive Blood Pressure Lowering on Markers of Mineral Metabolism in Persons with CKD in SPRINT. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol, 15(6), 852-854. (Read full article)
  29. Gardner J, Tuttle K, Raphael KL (2020). Influence of Medications Containing Acid Salts on Serum Bicarbonate in CKD. Kidney360, 1(5), 330-336. (Read full article)
  30. Malhotra R, Katz R, Jotwani V, Ambrosius WT, Raphael KL, Haley W, Rastogi A, Cheung AK, Freedman BI, Punzi H, Rocco MV, Ix JH, Shlipak MG (2020). Urine Markers of Kidney Tubule Cell Injury and Kidney Function Decline in SPRINT Trial Participants with CKD. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol, 15(3), 349-358. (Read full article)
  31. Raphael KL, Greene T, Wei G, Bullshoe T, Tuttle K, Cheung AK, Beddhu S (2020). Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation and Urinary TGF-β1 in Nonacidotic Diabetic Kidney Disease: A Randomized, Controlled Trial. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol, 15(2), 200-208. (Read full article)
  32. Raphael KL, Isakova T, Ix JH, Raj DS, Wolf M, Fried LF, Gassman JJ, Kendrick C, Larive B, Flessner MF, Mendley SR, Hostetter TH, Block GA, Li P, Middleton JP, Sprague SM, Wesson DE, Cheung AK (2019). A Randomized Trial Comparing the Safety, Adherence, and Pharmacodynamics Profiles of Two Doses of Sodium Bicarbonate in CKD: the BASE Pilot Trial. J Am Soc Nephrol, 31(1), 161-174. (Read full article)
  33. Webster L, Larive B, Gassman J, Bullen A, Weisbord SD, Palevsky PM, Fried LF, Raphael K, Isakova T, Ix JH (2020). A Simple Equation to Estimate Urinary Flow Rate Using Urine Creatinine. Am J Nephrol, 51(5), 395-400. (Read full article)
  34. Di Iorio BR, Bellasi A, Raphael KL, Santoro D, Aucella F, Garofano L, Ceccarelli M, Di Lullo L, Capolongo G, Di Iorio M, Guastaferro P, Capasso G, UBI Study Group (2019). Treatment of metabolic acidosis with sodium bicarbonate delays progression of chronic kidney disease: the UBI Study. J Nephrol, 32(6), 989-1001. (Read full article)
  35. Naai D, Raphael KL (2019). CKD in Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders: Trouble in Paradise. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol, 14(11), 1661-1663. (Read full article)
  36. Lee AK, Katz R, Jotwani V, Garimella PS, Ambrosius WT, Cheung AK, Gren LH, Neyra JA, Punzi H, Raphael KL, Shlipak MG, Ix JH (2019). Distinct Dimensions of Kidney Health and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease, Heart Failure, and Mortality. Hypertension, 74(4), HYPERTENSIONAHA11913339. (Read full article)
  37. Kraut JA, Raphael KL (2019). Drug removal of gastric acid: a novel treatment of metabolic acidosis. Lancet, 394(10196), 363-364. (Read full article)
  38. Raphael KL (2019). Metabolic Acidosis in CKD: Core Curriculum 2019. Am J Kidney Dis, 74(2), 263-275. (Read full article)
  39. Ix JH, Isakova T, Larive B, Raphael KL, Raj DS, Cheung AK, Sprague SM, Fried LF, Gassman JJ, Middleton JP, Flessner MF, Block GA, Wolf M (2019). Effects of Nicotinamide and Lanthanum Carbonate on Serum Phosphate and Fibroblast Growth Factor-23 in CKD: The COMBINE Trial. J Am Soc Nephrol, 30(6), 1096-1108. (Read full article)
  40. Raphael KL (2019). The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet in chronic kidney disease: should we embrace it? Kidney Int, 95(6), 1296-1298. (Read full article)
  41. Lehman CM, Pearson L, Salmond J, Raphael K, Schmidt RL (2018). A Reflex Protocol for Creatinine Testing Reduces Costs and Maintains Patient Safety. Lab Med, 50(2), 202-207. (Read full article)
  42. Frodsham SG, Yu Z, Lyons AM, Agarwal A, Pezzolesi MH, Dong L, Srinivas TR, Ying J, Greene T, Raphael KL, Smith KR, Pezzolesi MG (2018). The Familiality of Rapid Renal Decline in Diabetes. Diabetes, 68(2), 420-429. (Read full article)
  43. Jotwani VK, Lee AK, Estrella MM, Katz R, Garimella PS, Malhotra R, Rifkin DE, Ambrosius W, Freedman BI, Cheung AK, Raphael KL, Drawz P, Neyra JA, Oparil S, Punzi H, Shlipak MG, Ix JH, fortheSPRINTResearchGroup (2019). Urinary Biomarkers of Tubular Damage Are Associated with Mortality but Not Cardiovascular Risk among Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial Participants with Chronic Kidney Disease. Am J Nephrol, 49(5), 346-355. (Read full article)
  44. Ginsberg C, Craven TE, Chonchol MB, Cheung AK, Sarnak MJ, Ambrosius WT, Killeen AA, Raphael KL, Bhatt UY, Chen J, Chertow GM, Freedman BI, Oparil S, Papademetriou V, Wall BM, Wright CB, Ix JH, Shlipak MG, SPRINT Research Group (2018). PTH, FGF23, and Intensive Blood Pressure Lowering in Chronic Kidney Disease Participants in SPRINT. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol, 13(12), 1816-1824. (Read full article)
  45. Chen W, Newman AB, Fried LF, Rifkin DE, Shlipak MG, Sarnak MJ, Katz R, Madero M, Raphael KL, Bushinsky DA, Ix JH (2017). Relationship of acid-base status with arterial stiffness in community-living elders: the Health ABC Study. Nephrol Dial Transplant, 33(9), 1572-1579. (Read full article)
  46. Prasad PV, Li W, Raj DS, Carr J, Carr M, Thacker J, Li LP, Wang C, Sprague SM, Ix JH, Chonchol M, Block G, Cheung AK, Raphael K, Gassman J, Wolf M, Fried LF, Isakova T, CKD Optimal Management with BInders and NicotinamidE COMBINE study group (2018). Multicenter Study Evaluating Intrarenal Oxygenation and Fibrosis Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Individuals With Advanced CKD. Kidney Int Rep, 3(6), 1467-1472. (Read full article)
  47. Raphael KL, Yee J (2018). It Is Really Time for Ammonium Measurement. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis, 25(4), 297-300. (Read full article)
  48. Raphael KL, Ix JH (2018). Correlation of Urine Ammonium and Urine Osmolal Gap in Kidney Transplant Recipients. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol, 13(4), 638-640. (Read full article)
  49. Dobre M, Gaussoin SA, Bates JT, Chonchol MB, Cohen DL, Hostetter TH, Raphael KL, Taylor AA, Lerner AJ, Wright JT Jr, Rahman M, SPRINT Research Group (2018). Serum Bicarbonate Concentration and Cognitive Function in Hypertensive Adults. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol, 13(4), 596-603. (Read full article)
  50. Raphael KL (2017). Metabolic Acidosis and Subclinical Metabolic Acidosis in CKD. J Am Soc Nephrol, 29(2), 376-382. (Read full article)
  51. Raphael KL, Gilligan S, Hostetter TH, Greene T, Beddhu S (2018). Association between urine ammonium and urine TGF-B1 in CKD. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol, 13(2), 223-230.
  52. Raphael KL, Gilligan S, Ix JH (2017). Urine anion gap to predict urine ammonium and related outcomes in kidney disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol, 13(2), 205-212.
  53. Raphael KL, Carroll D, Murray J, Greene T, Beddhu S (2017). Urine ammonium predicts clinical outcomes in hypertensive kidney disease. J Am Soc Nephrol, 28(8), 2483-2490.
  54. Gilligan S, Raphael KL (2017). Hyperkalemia and Hypokalemia in CKD: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Clinical Outcomes. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis, 24(5), 315-318. (Read full article)
  55. Raphael KL, Shihab FS (2017). Acidosis and Kidney Allograft Survival. J Am Soc Nephrol, 28(6), 1672-1674. (Read full article)
  56. Beddhu S, Chen X, Wei G, Raj D, Raphael KL, Boucher R, Chonchol MB, Murtaugh MA, Greene T (2017). Associations of Protein-Energy Wasting Syndrome Criteria With Body Composition and Mortality in the General and Moderate Chronic Kidney Disease Populations in the United States. Kidney Int Rep, 2(3), 390-399. (Read full article)
  57. Lloyd IE, Gallan A, Huston HK, Raphael KL, Miller DV, Revelo MP, Khalighi MA (2016). C3 glomerulopathy in adults: a distinct patient subset showing frequent association with monoclonal gammopathy and poor renal outcomes. Clin Kidney J, 9(6), 794-99.
  58. Raphael KL, Murphy RA, Shlipak MG, Satterfield S, Huston HK, Sebastian A, Sellmeyer DE, Patel KV, Newman AB, Sarnak MJ, Ix JH, Fried LF (2015). Bicarbonate, acid-base status, and mortality in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol.
  59. SPRINT Research Group (2015). A Randomized Trial of Intensive versus Standard Blood-Pressure Control. N Engl J Med.
  60. Schmidt RL, Straseski JA, Raphael KL, Adams AH, Lehman CM (2015). A risk assessment of the Jaffe vs enzymatic method for creatinine measurement in an outpatient population. PLoS One.
  61. Raphael KL, Beddhu S (2015). Hypertension and Polypharmacy in Elderly Nursing Home Residents: When Less is More. Am J Kidney Dis, 66(4), 561-3.
  62. Louie JM, Raphael KL, Barker B (2015). Levetiracetam Use With Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy. Ann Pharmacother, 49(9), 1079-80.
  63. Isakova T, Ix JH, Sprague SM, Raphael KL, Fried L, Gassman JJ, Raj D, Cheung AK, Kusek JW, Flessner MF, Wolf M, Block GA (05/12/2015). Rationale and Approaches to Phosphate and Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 Reduction in CKD. J Am Soc Nephrol.
  64. Huston HK, Abramowitz MK, Zhang Y, Greene T, Raphael KL (03/01/2015). Net endogenous acid production and mortality in NHANES III. Nephrology (Carlton), 20(3), 209-215.
  65. Raphael KL (2015). Approach to the treatment of chronic metabolic acidosis in chronic kidney disease. Am J Kidney Dis, 67(4), 696-702.
  66. Raphael KL, Zhang Y, Ying J, Greene T (October 2014). Prevalence of and risk factors for reduced serum bicarbonate in chronic kidney disease. Nephrology (Carlton), 19(10), 648-54.
  67. Raphael KL, Zhang Y, Wei G, Greene T, Cheung AK, Beddhu S (2013). Serum bicarbonate and mortality in adults in NHANES III. Nephrol Dial Transplant, 28(5), 1207-13. (Read full article)
  68. Filipowicz R, Greene T, Wei G, Cheung AK, Raphael KL, Baird BC, Beddhu S (2013). Associations of serum skeletal alkaline phosphatase with elevated C-reactive protein and mortality. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol, 8(1), 26-32. (Read full article)
  69. Krishnamurthy VM, Wei G, Baird BC, Murtaugh M, Chonchol MB, Raphael KL, Greene T, Beddhu S (2012). High dietary fiber intake is associated with decreased inflammation and all-cause mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int, 81(3), 300-6. (Read full article)
  70. Raphael KL, Wei G, Greene T, Baird BC, Beddhu S (2012). Cognitive function and the risk of death in chronic kidney disease. Am J Nephrol, 35(1), 49-57. (Read full article)
  71. Roos KP, Strait KA, Raphael KL, Blount MA, Kohan DE (2012). Collecting duct-specific knockout of adenylyl cyclase type VI causes a urinary concentration defect in mice. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol, 302(1), F78-84. (Read full article)
  72. Raphael KL, Cheung AK (2011). Implications of the Frequent Hemodialysis Network-Daily Trial. Semin Dial, 24(6), 621-8. (Read full article)
  73. Krishnamurthy VR, Baird BC, Wei G, Greene T, Raphael K, Beddhu S (2011). Associations of serum alkaline phosphatase with metabolic syndrome and mortality. Am J Med, 124(6), 566.e1-7. (Read full article)
  74. Raphael KL, Wei G, Baird BC, Greene T, Beddhu S (2011). Higher serum bicarbonate levels within the normal range are associated with better survival and renal outcomes in African Americans. Kidney Int, 79(3), 356-62. (Read full article)
  75. Damera S, Raphael KL, Baird BC, Cheung AK, Greene T, Beddhu S (2011). Serum alkaline phosphatase levels associate with elevated serum C-reactive protein in chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int, 79(2), 228-33. (Read full article)
  76. Raphael KL, Strait KA, Stricklett PK, Miller RL, Nelson RD, Piontek KB, Germino GG, Kohan DE (2009). Inactivation of Pkd1 in principal cells causes a more severe cystic kidney disease than in intercalated cells. Kidney Int, 75(6), 626-33. (Read full article)
  77. Raphael KL, Strait KA, Stricklett PK, Baird BC, Piontek K, Germino GG, Kohan DE (2009). Effect of pioglitazone on survival and renal function in a mouse model of polycystic kidney disease. Am J Nephrol, 30(5), 468-73. (Read full article)
  78. Rondina MT, Raphael K, Pendleton R, Sande MA (2006). Abdominal aortitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae and Enterobacter aerogenes: a case report and review. J Gen Intern Med, 21(7), C1-3. (Read full article)
  79. Raphael K, Tokeshi J (2002). Hyponatremia associated with sertraline and fluoxetine: a case report. Hawaii Med J, 61(3), 46-7. (Read full article)